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Type X3 Arcade System

Taito Type X3 Arcade System (upcoming release)

An arcade system board is a dedicated computer system created for the purpose of running video arcade games. Arcade system boards typically consist of a main system board with any number of supporting circuit boards.[1]

History

Throughout the late 20th century, arcade video game hardware was most often considerably more powerful than contemporary consoles and home computers of their time, sometimes even an entire generation ahead of home systems. The way arcade systems were built with multiple boards linked together, and upgraded every year with more powerful components, was a precursor to the way PC systems are built and upgraded every year.

The earliest non-microprocessor based arcade system boards were designed around codeless state machine computers with the main board and any support boards consisting of discrete logic circuits comprising each element of the game itself.[2] The next generation of arcade system boards(with the inclusion of microprocessor based technology) incorporated the game program code directly on the main system board via game code stored in ROM chips mounted on the main board. Later arcade system boards, including the DECO Cassette System, SNK's Neo-Geo, Capcom's CPS-2, and Sega's NAOMI, separated the system board from the game program itself, akin to a home video game console and cartridge/CD/DVD/hard disk. This method benefitted both manufacturers and arcade game owners. Once the system board was purchased, the owner could switch out the games at a fraction of the price and with less effort, and the manufacturers could produce fewer of the costly system boards and more of the less-costly games.

Up until the early 2000s, arcade system boards frequently used expensive custom GPU and sound chips significantly more powerful than what was available on home consoles and personal computers at the time. Since the early 2000s, however, arcade system boards have mostly been using commercial graphics and sound cards found in consoles and personal computers in order to reduce production costs.

Currently, the company with the record of the highest number of original arcade system boards is Sega.

The following generational periods mainly refer to the high-end arcade hardware of each era.

1st generation: Discrete era (1971-1975)

The first generation of arcade hardware was based on simple discrete logic circuitry, beginning with the Computer Space hardware by Nutting Associates (employees of which would later form Atari) in 1971.

The graphics during this era was monochrome, and consisted of simple, blocky 2D graphics, up until basic sprites stored in ROM (read-only memory) and vertical scrolling were introduced by Taito's Speed Race in 1974. There were no sound chips during this era, so the sound usually consisted of either simple digital bleeps generated from the discrete circuitry or explosion sounds generated through electro-mechanical methods.

2nd generation: 8-bit era (1975-1982)

The second generation saw the introduction of microprocessors, beginning with the 8-bit Intel 8080 CPU of Gun Fight, by Taito and Midway, in 1975. After the huge success of 8-bit microprocessor based blockbuster Space Invaders, which marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games in 1978, discrete logic hardware eventually faded away.

This era marked a transition from simple, blocky, monochrome 2D graphics, to multi-coloured, 2D hardware sprites, and multi-directional scrolling backdrops, by 1980. Some pseudo-3D techniques were also introduced, in the forms of vector graphics and sprite-scaling, by 1981. Sound boards and sound chips also began to be used during this era, leading to the introduction of chiptune music in the late 70's.

3rd generation: 16-bit era (1982-1988)

In the third generation, 16-bit microprocessors began to be used, starting in 1982, with the Namco Pole Position system using two Zilog Z8002 processors (one as a CPU and the other as a GPU) and the Atari 68000 Hardware using a Motorola 68000. While 16-bit, both the Z8002 and 68000 also had 32-bit features.

This era saw a transition from 2D sprites and vector graphics, to advanced pseudo-3D sprite-scaling, which, following the introduction of Sega's Super Scaler technology in 1985, was able to scale thousands of sprites per second, and functioned similarly to, and was a precursor to, texture-mapped 3D polygons. There were also failed attempts at primitive 3D polygons, such as Atari's I, Robot in 1984 and Taito's Midnight Landing in 1986. Sound chips capable of FM synthesis and PCM sampling were also introduced during this era, along with audio playback from the Laserdisc format, by 1984.

4th generation: 32-bit era (1988-1993)

In the fourth generation, 32-bit microprocessors began to be used, starting in 1988, with the Namco System 21 using the Motorola 68020 CPU and five Texas Instruments TMS320C20 DSP processors, the Taito Air System using the 16/32-bit 68000 CPU and 32-bit TMS320C25 DSP, and the Williams Z Unit using the TMS34010 DSP as a CPU.

This era marked the transition from 2D sprites and pseudo-3D sprite-scaling to true polygonal 3D graphics, powered by GPU chips and graphics boards dedicated to 3D graphics, as early as 1988. The first dedicated polygonal 3D game systems were the Taito Air System and Namco System 21 in 1988. However, 3D polygons would not become dominant up until the arrival of the Sega Model 1 in 1992. Sound chips also became more sophisticated, with more advanced FM synthesis, dozens of PCM channels, MIDI support, and playback of compressed audio files, by the early 90's.

5th generation: 64-bit era (1993-1998)

In the fifth generation, 64-bit microprocessors began to be used, starting in 1993, with Namco's Magic Edge Hornet Simulator hardware using multiple 64-bit SGI Onyx RealityEngine2 systems, the Namco System 22 (while still using the 32-bit Motorola 68EC020 CPU) using the 64-bit Evans & Sutherland TR3 GPU, and the Sega Model 2 system using the 32/64-bit Intel i960 CPU and multiple 64-bit Fujitsu MB86934 GPU processors.

This era marked the transition from simple, flat-shaded3D polygons, to texture-mapped 3D polygons with effects such as Gouroud shadingtexture filteringanti-aliasing, and T&L, as early as 1993.

6th generation: 128-bit era (1998-2003)

In the sixth generation, 128-bit microprocessors began to be used, beginning with the Sega Naomi hardware, the more powerful arcade counterpart of the Dreamcast console, in 1998; both the Naomi and Dreamcast used the 128-bit Hitachi SH-4 CPU and PowerVR 2 GPU processors.

This era saw the introduction of more advanced 3D features, such as hardware Phong shading introduced by the Sega Hikaru system in 1999, and bloom lightingdepth-of-field effects and programmable shaders introduced in the early 2000s.

In the early 2000s, as powerful graphics boards previously limited to arcade systems became commercially available for PC systems, the PC platform eventually overtook arcade systems as the platform of choice for the most powerful graphics cards. As a result, the Sega Naomi 2 system, released in 2000, was the last major proprietary arcade hardware, not based on PC or consoles.

7th generation: 256-bit era (2003-present)

As a result of the PC platform surpassing arcade machines in terms of power in the early 2000s, arcade systems eventually transitioned away from expensive proprietary hardware towards being based on more affordable commercial PC hardware.

In 2003, the seventh generation of arcade hardware began with the Namco System N2, based on PC architecture, using a 256-bit nVidia GPU. While most CPU processors continue to be either 64-bit or 128-bit, most GPU processors are now either 256-bit or 384-bit.

List of arcade system boards

Atari

Bally

BrezzaSoft

Capcom

Cave

CD Express

Data East

Eolith

Examu

Fuuki

Gaelco

ICE

IGS

Incredible Technologies

Interpark

Irem

Jaleco

Kaneko

Konami

Limenko

Metro

MicroProse

Midway

Mitchell

Namco

Nintendo

Psikyo

RCI

Sammy

Sega

Seibu

SI Electronics

Seta

Skonec

SNK

Sony

Taito

Tecmo

Terminal

Williams

Evolution of arcade video game hardware

This is a list of notable arcade systems and their specifications, demonstrating the evolution of arcade video game hardware.

Discrete hardware (1971-1979)

Date Arcade system Main chip(s) Graphics chip(s) Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio Reference(s)
1972 Atari Discrete Logic Discrete circuitry,

66 discrete logic chips

N/A B&W (Black & White) Discrete circuitry Mono [2]
1974 Taito Discrete Logic Discrete circuitry N/A B&W,
Sprites,
Scrolling,
Collision detection
Discrete circuitry Mono [3] [40]
1975 Taito Discrete Logic Discrete circuitry Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter 2 B&W shades,
Sprites,
Scrolling,
Collision detection
Taito 597-907 logic board sound generation & amplifier Mono chiptune [4] [41] [5] [6]
Feb 1976 Sega Discrete Logic Sega Logic Board 94789-P N/A B&W,
Scrolling,
Sprite scaling,
Collision detection
Sega S-93806 Tape Deck (8-track),

Sega S-94802 Cartridge Recording Tape

Mono audio tape sound [7] [8] [9]
1976 Taito Discrete Logic Discrete circuitry Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter RGB colour,
Sprites,
Scrolling,
Collision detection
Discrete circuitry Mono [10]
Nov 1979 Sega Discrete Logic TTL discrete logic circuitry Sega Display Board 96597-P,
Sega Display Board MO-4202,
Sega Accelerator Board 96599-P,
Sega 96577X Board Assy A,
Sega 96578X Board Assy B
RGB colour,
Scrolling,
36 multi-coloured sprites,
240x384 pixels,
Collision detection
Sega Oscillator IC Sound Board 96598-P,
Sega 96577X Board Assy A
7 mono sound effects [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

8-bit hardware (1975-1984)

1975-1977

Date Arcade system CPU (central processing unit) GPU
(graphics processing unit)
Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
1975 Taito 8080 /
Midway 8080
8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS)[42] Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter 2 B&W shades,
Sprites,
256x224 pixels resolution @ 60 Hz refresh rate
Taito 597-907 logic board sound generation & amplifier Mono chiptune 128 Bytes [16] [41] [17] [18]
July 1976 Atari 6502 8-bit MOS 6502 @ 756 kHz (0.32 MIPS) N/A 2-4 B&W shades,

256x208 @ 60 Hz

Discrete circuitry Mono 1 KB Main RAM

1 KB VRAM (Video RAM)

[19] [20] [43] [21] [44]
Sep 1976 Atari 6800 8-bit Motorola 6800 @ 756 kHz N/A 6 B&W shades Discrete circuitry

Mono

256 Bytes Main

1.05 KB VRAM

[22] [23] [44]
Feb 1977 Taito 8080 / 
Midway 8080
8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS) Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter 64 B&W shades,
256x224 @ 60 Hz
Discrete circuitry sound chip @ 560 kHz Mono 1 KB Main,

3 KB VRAM

[24]

[25] [43][44][45] [26]

June 1977 Sega Vic Dual 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS) / 

8-bit Intel 8080A @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS)

Sega Video Logic Board 811-0002 / 813-0001 64 B&W shades,

256x224 @ 60 Hz

Sound Board 801-0001 (discrete circuitry sound card),

Tone generator

Mono 5 KB Main,

3 KB VRAM

[27] [43][44][45] [28] [29] [30] [31]
1977 Taito Z80 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz (0.37 MIPS) Taito Display Board AO84-91335-C762 16 RGB colours,
Scrolling,
256x376 @ 59.4 Hz
Audio Board A084-90900-C762 (discrete circuitry) Mono 536 Bytes [32] [43] [33] [44] [34]

1978-1981

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
1978 Taito 8080  8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS)

Custom video card,

Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter

64 sprites
64 B&W shades, 
224x260 pixels @ 60 Hz refresh rate
Texas Instruments SN76477 @ 2 MHz,

Fujitsu MB14221 audio shiftr

PSG (programmable sound generator),

Mono chiptune

1 KB Main,

7 KB VRAM

[35] [36] [37] [46] [38]
Jan 1979 Irem M10 8-bit MOS 6502 @ 2.5 MHz (1.1 MIPS) N/A 16 RGB colours,
224x256 @ 60 Hz
Irem M-15S sound board Mono,

Sound samples

2-3 KB Main,
2 KB VRAM,
5.25 KB fast SRAM (Static RAM)
[39] [40]
Sep 1979 Taito 8080  8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS) Colour video board,

Fujitsu MB14241 video shifter

64 sprites,
8 RGB colours,
64 B&W shades,
224x260 @ 60 Hz
Texas Instruments SN76477 @ 2 MHz,

Fujitsu MB14221 audio shiftr

Mono PSG,

Chiptune

15 KB Main

8 KB VRAM

[41] [42] [46] [43] [44] [45]
Oct 1979 Nintendo 8080 8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2.1 MHz (0.31 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8035 @ 400 kHz

Nintendo PI-500803 board 8 RGB colours,

224x256

Nintendo TWG-SOU / TSF-SOU Sound Board,
Texas Instruments SN76477 @ 400 kHz,
DAC (Digital to Analog Converter)
Mono PSG,

Chiptune

16 KB VRAM [47] [46] [47]
Oct 1979 Namco Galaxian 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz (0.45 MIPS) Game Logic Board AO82-91353-A866 video section,

Namco LFSR

32 RGB colours,
64 multi-coloured sprites,
256x224 @ 60.61 Hz
Tone generator,
Namco LFSR,
5x NE555
3x 8-bit mono channels,

17-bit noise

2.5 KB Main,

4 KB VRAM

[48] [48][49][50] [49]
1979 Irem M14 NEC D8085AC (8-bit Intel 8085A) @ 3 MHz (1.2 MIPS) M14S-2 / M14L-2 board 32 RGB colours,

256x256 @ 60 Hz

Sound board (M14S-2 / M14L-2)

Sound samples,

Mono

2-3 KB Main,
2 KB VRAM,
5.25 KB fast SRAM
[50] [51] [41]
Nov 1979 Atari 6502 Vector 8-bit MOS 6502 @ 1.5 MHz (0.65 MIPS) N/A B&W,

Vector graphics

POKEY Mono PSG 1 KB Main

2 KB VRAM

[52] [53] [54]
May 1980 Namco Pac-Man 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz (0.45 MIPS)

Namco VRAM Addresser,

2x Namco NVC293 Custom Video Shifter

16 colours on screen,
256-512 colour palette,
224x288 pixels @ 60.61 Hz,
Scrolling
4-bit Namco WSG @ 3.1 MHz 3 channel mono,

Chiptune

2 KB Main

4 KB VRAM

[55] [56] [57] [58]
June 1980 Konami Scramble /
Namco Galaxian
2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz & 2.5 MHz (0.82 MIPS) Game Logic Board video section,

Namco LFSR

64 colours on screen,
99 colour palette,
64 sprites,
256x224 @ 60.61 Hz
6x Konami RC @ 1.8 MHz each,
2x General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.8 MHz each,
Tone generator,
Namco LFSR,
5x NE555,
DAC
Speech synthesis,
3x 8-bit mono PSG channels,
17-bit noise
2.5 KB Main,
4 KB VRAM,
1 KB Sound
[59] [48][49][50] [60] [61]
June 1980 Nintendo 8080 8-bit Intel 8080 @ 2.1 MHz (0.31 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8035 @ 400 kHz

Nintendo PI-500803 board 8 colours on screen,
1032 colour palette,
224x256 @ 60 Hz
Nintendo TWG-SOU / TSF-SOU Sound Board,
Texas Instruments SN76477 @ 400 kHz,
DAC @ 400 kHz
Mono PSG 24 KB VRAM [62] [47]
Aug 1980 Taito Z80 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz each (0.73 MIPS) Display Board AO84-91335-C762 16 colours,

256x256 @ 57 fps (frames per second)

Taito 800031 Sound Board Assembly B,
Texas Instruments SN76477 @ 1.25 MHz,
General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.25 MHz,
DAC @ 1.25 MHz
Speech synthesis,

3 mono PSG channels

1 KB Main,

16 KB VRAM

[63]

[64] [65] [66]

Nov 1980 Nintendo Classic 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz & 3.1 MHz (1.2 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8035 @ 400 kHz

Nintendo TKG4-11 / TKG4-14 Video Board Sprite scaling,
256 colours on screen,
521 colour palette,
224x256 @ 60.61 Hz
DAC @ 400 kHz,

Samples @ 400 kHz

Chiptune,

Mono

3 KB Main

2 KB VRAM

[67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72]
Dec 1980 DECO Cassette System 8-bit MOS 6502 @ 500 kHz (0.22 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8041 @ 600 kHz

Data East DSP-3 / DSP-8 Board,

8-bit DECO 222 (MOS 6502) @ 750 kHz (0.33 MIPS)

56 colours,
240x240,
Scrolling
Data East RMS-3 / RMS-8 Board,

2x General Instrument AY-3-8910A @ 1.5 MHz each

6 mono PSG channels 24 KB Main,[51]
31.25 KB VRAM,[51]
4 KB Sound SRAM
[73] [74] [75]
1981 Konami Tactician 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 3.1 MHz & 1.8 MHz (0.72 MIPS) Konami 364-12-0500 Electrochrome Monitor Signal Harness Scrolling,
96 colours on screen,
260 colour palette,
224x288 pixels @ 60 fps
Konami KT-3106-2 Sound Board Card
(6x Konami RC @ 1.8 MHz each,
2x General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.8 MHz each)
6 mono PSG channels 2 KB Main,
4 KB VRAM,
1 KB Sound
[76] [77] [78] [79]
March 1981 Sega G80 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 8 MHz (1.2 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8035 @ 3.2 MHz

Sega Raster Display Controller,

Sega Vector Display Controller

128 colours on screen,
256 colour palette,
64 sprites,
224x256 pixels @ 60 fps,
Colour vector graphics: 400x300 @ 40 fps
Sega USB (Universal Sound Board),
General Instrument SP0250 @ 3.9 MHz,
DAC
Speech synthesis @ 10 kHz sampling rate,

Mono

2 KB Main,
9.1 KB VRAM,
4 KB Sound
[80] [81]

[82] [83] [84] [85] [86]

July 1981 Irem M27 8/16-bit Motorola 6802 @ 3.6 MHz,
8-bit MOS 6502 @ 5.9 MHz (2.6 MIPS),
8-bit Intel 8085A @ 1 MHz (0.37 MIPS)

Irem M-27S Character board,

Irem M-33 Sub 2 Character board

256 colours,
240x256 pixels @ 60 fps
Irem M-27B Audio board,
Irem UE-17B Voice board,
2x General Instrument AY-8910 @ 3.6 MHz each
6 mono PSG channels,

Speech synthesis

8 KB Main,

16 KB VRAM

[87] [41] [88] [89]
July 1981 Taito Z80 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 6 MHz (1.8 MIPS),

Zilog Z80 @ 3 MHz (0.44 MIPS)

Taito Game Board 32 colours,
384x264,
Scrolling
Taito Sound Board,

3x General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.5 MHz each

Speech synthesis,

9 mono PSG channels

12 KB Main SRAM,
6.25 KB VRAM,
12 KB Sound SRAM
[90] [91] [92] [93] [94]
Sep 1981 Namco Galaga 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz each (0.9 MIPS),

2x 4-bit Fujitsu MB8xx

Namco Galaga Video board,
8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz (0.45 MIPS),
Namco custom GPU chipset[52]
64 colours on screen,
580 colour palette,
64 sprites,
Scrolling,
288x224 @ 60 fps
4-bit Namco WSG @ 3.1 MHz,
Namco 50xx Sound Sequencer @ 1.6 MHz,
4-bit Namco 52xx Audio Processor @ 1.6 MHz,
Namco 54xx Sounds @ 1.6 MHz
4 mono PSG channels,

Chiptune

8 KB Main,

4 KB VRAM

[95]  [96]  [97]  [53] [98]
Oct 1981 Sega VCO Object 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz (0.73 MIPS) Sega ADC (Analog to Digital Converter),

8x Sega VCO (Voltage Control Oscillator)

256 colours on screen,
514 colour palette,
Sprite scaling,
Scrolling,
288x256 @ 60 fps
Sega 834-0123 Sound Board Stereo,

Sound samples

2 KB Main,

5.25 KB VRAM

[99] [54] [100] [101]
Dec 1981 Sega Z80 /
Namco Galaxian
2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz & 2.5 MHz (0.82 MIPS)

Game Logic Board video section,

Custom Sega hardware

Parallax scrolling,
99 colours,
64 sprites,
256x224 @ 60.61 Hz
General Instrument AY-3-8910 @ 1.8 MHz 3 mono PSG channels 2 KB Main

1.25 KB VRAM

[102] [48][49][55]

1982

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
Jan 1982 Sega Zaxxon

8/16-bit NEC D780C-1 (Zilog Z80) @ 3.1 MHz (0.45 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS)

Sega 834-0257 Video II board,

2x Sega 93422 custom chips

Isometric graphics,
256 colours,
224x256 @ 60 Hz

Sega 171-0078 Sound II board,

NEC D8255AC-5 sound chip

Mono PSG 6 KB Main

8.25 KB VRAM

[103] [104] [105] [106]
June 1982 Irem M52 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz (0.9 MIPS),

Motorola 6803 @ 895 kHz

Irem M52-B-C Character Board,

Irem M52-E-C Scrolling Video Board

Parallax scrolling,
588 colours,
240x248 @ 60 Hz
Irem M52-SOUND-C board,
2x 10-bit Oki MSM5205 @ 384 kHz each,
2x General Instrument AY-3-8910 @ 895 kHz each
10-bit ADPCM (adaptive differential PCM),

6 channel mono PSG chiptune

2 KB Main,

3 KB VRAM

[107]

[108] [109] [110] [111] [112]

July 1982 Sega VCO Object 8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 5 MHz (0.73 MIPS) 8/16-bit Sega 315-5014 (Zilog Z80) @ 5 MHz (0.73 MIPS),
Sega ADC,
8x Sega VCO
Stereoscopic 3D,
Sprite scaling,
1024 colours,
288x256 @ 60 fps (30 fps in stereoscopic 3D)
Sega 834-0246 / 834-5122 Sound Board,
Sega Sound Generator,
Intel 8255A-5
Stereo,

Sound samples

12 KB Main,
60 KB VRAM [56]
[113] [54][114] [115] [116]
Sep 1982 Sega Z80 8/16-bit Sega 315-5015 (Zilog Z80) @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS)

Sega 315-5011 custom graphics handler,

Sega 315-5012 sprite operater

768 colours,
288x224 pixels @ 60 fps
2x Texas Instruments SN76496 @ 4 MHz & 2 MHz 8 mono PSG channels,

Chiptune

10 KB Main,
2.3 KB VRAM,
16 KB Sound
[117] [55]

1983

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
March 1983 Konami 6809 /
Konami Z80

2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 & 3.1 MHz (0.98 MIPS),

Intel 8039 @ 534 kHz

Konami KT-9211-IC CRT Board,
8/16-bit Motorola 6809 @ 2.1 MHz (0.91 MIPS),
Konami Semaphore system
320 colours,

256x224 pixels @ 60.56 Hz

Konami KT-2304-2 Sound Board,
6x Konami RC (SCC) @ 1.8 MHz each,
5x General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.8 MHz each,
DAC
15 stereo PSG channels,

24 wavetable samples

42 KB total
(38 KB program RAM,[57]
4 KB VRAM)
[118] [119] [120] [43] [121] [122]
May 1983 Sega Laserdisc 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz (0.73 MIPS)

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 2 MHz (0.29 MIPS),

Hitachi-Sega VIP9500SG  / Pioneer LDV1000 laserdisc player

256 colour graphics,
256x256 pixels @ 60 Hz,
Laserdisc FMV @ 480x430 lines
Sega CN2 audio board,

Laserdisc player

Laserdisc stereo sound: 16-bit @ 44.1 kHz sampling rate,

Audio samples

16.2 KB total
(11.2 KB program RAM,
5 KB VRAM)
[123] [124] [125] [126]
1983 Nintendo Punch Out 8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS),

Ricoh N2A03 (8-bit MOS 6502) @ 1.8 MHz (0.8 MIPS)

Nintendo CHP1-VIDEO board 1025 colours,
Sprite scaling,
256x448 @ 60 fps,
2 screens
Ricoh N2A03 @ 1.8 MHz,

Sanyo VLM5030 @ 3.6 MHz

5 stereo PSG channels,
PCM (pulse code modulation),
Speech synthesis
72.2 KB total
(62.1 KB program RAM,[58]
10.1 KB VRAM)
[127] [128] [129]

1984

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
Feb 1984 Konami Dual 6809 8/16-bit Motorola 6809 @ 3.1 MHz (1.4 MIPS),
8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz (0.53 MIPS),
Intel 8039 @ 534 kHz
8/16-bit Motorola 6809 @ 3.1 MHz (1.4 MIPS) 4096 colours,
96 sprites on screen,
256x256 @ 60 fps
3x Konami RC (SCC) @ 1.8 MHz each,
4x Texas Instruments SN76496 @ 1.8 MHz each,
General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.8 MHz each,
DAC
19 stereo PSG channels,

12 wavetable samples

99 KB total
(56 KB program RAM,[59]
43 KB VRAM[60])
[130] [131]
1984 Taito Z80 2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 6 MHz each (1.8 MIPS),

8-bit Motorola MC68705P5 @ 3.1 MHz

Taito J1100058A Video board,
8x Fujitsu MB112S146,
3x PAL16L8
2048 colours,
Sprite scaling,
96 sprites on screen,
256x256 @ 60 fps
2x Yamaha YM2203 (OPN) @ 4 MHz each

6 FM (Frequency Modulation synthesis) channels,

6 PSG channels

41 KB total
(35 KB program RAM,[61]
6 KB VRAM[62])
[132] [133] [134] [135] [136]

16-bit hardware (1982-1990)

1982-1984

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
July 1982 Namco Pole Position 16/32-bit Zilog Z8002 @ 3.1 MHz (0.9 MIPS),
8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz (0.45 MIPS),
4-bit Fujitsu MB884 @ 1.6 MHz,
3x 4-bit Fujitsu MB8843 @ 1.6 MHz each
Namco Pole Position Video board,
16/32-bit Zilog Z8002 @ 3.1 MHz (0.9 MIPS),
Namco custom GPU chipset[63]
Sprite scaling,
256x224 @ 60 fps,
3840 colours
Namco Audio II board
(4-bit Namco WSG @ 48 kHz,
Namco 52xx Audio Processor @ 1.6 MHz,
Namco 54xx Sounds @ 1.6 MHz,
DAC)
6 stereo PSG channels,

Speech synthesis

6.25 KB Main,
22.25 KB VRAM,
1.25 KB Sound
[137] [138] [139] [53] [140] [141]
Dec 1982 Atari 68000 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 6 MHz (1.05 MIPS) N/A 256 colours,
256x231 pixels @ 60 Hz,
Colour vector graphics: 400x300 @ 60 Hz
2x POKEY @ 600 kHz 4 mono PSG channels 20 KB Main,

8 KB VRAM

[142] [43] [143] [144]
Oct 1983 Tatsumi TX-1 16-bit Intel 8086 @ 5 MHz (0.75 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.8 MHz (0.56 MIPS)

Tatsumi TC012 Graphics Board,

16-bit Intel 8086 @ 5 MHz (0.75 MIPS)

768 colours,
Sprite scaling,
768x264 @ 59.2 Hz,
3 screens
Tatsumi TC013 Sound Board,
Tatsumi TX-1 Discrete Custom Chip,
General Instrument AY-3-8910A @ 1.9 MHz
3 stereo PSG channels,

4-speaker surround sound

184 KB total
(140 KB program RAM,[64]
44 KB VRAM[65])
[145] [146] [147] [148] [41][43] [149] [150] [151] [152]
Dec 1983 Namco System 16 2x 8/16-bit Motorola 6809 @ 1.6 MHz each (1.4 MIPS) 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 6.2 MHz (1.1 MIPS),
Namco 56xx,
Namco 58xx
800 colours,
Sprite scaling,
288x224 @ 60 fps
4-bit Namco WSG,

Namco 15xx @ 24 KHz

8 stereo PSG channels 632 KB total
(56 KB program RAM,[66]
576 KB VRAM)
[153] [154] [43] [155]
Sep 1984 Alpha Denshi Equites 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 6 MHz (1.1 MIPS),

8-bit Intel 8085 @ 5 MHz (1.9 MIPS)

Alpha Denshi Video PCB (Printed Circuit Board),

Alpha Denshi ALPHA-8303 Custom Video processor

640 colours,
128 sprites on screen,
256x256 @ 60 fps
Alpha Denshi Sound Board No. 59 MC 07 @ 6.2 MHz,
Oki MSM5232 @ 2.5 MHz,
General Instrument AY-8910 @ 1.6 MHz,
2x DAC

8 tone generator channels,

3 PSG channels

512 KB total
(256 KB program RAM,[67]
256 KB VRAM[68])
[156] [157] [158]

1985-1990

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
July 1985 Sega Hang-On 2x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 6.25 MHz each (2.2 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS)

Sega Super Scaler 834-5668 graphics board
(315-5011 sprite line comparitor,
315-5012 sprite generator,
2x 315-5049 tilemap chips,
PAL chipset[69])
6144 colours on screen,
32,000 colour palette,
320x224 @ 60 fps,
128 sprites per frame,
Sprite scaling,
5 hardware layers,[70]
Shadows
Sega Assy Sound Board 834-5670,
Yamaha YM2203 (OPN) @ 4 MHz,
SegaPCM @ 8 MHz
3 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
16 PCM channels: 8-bit @ 31.25 kHz sampling rate,
Surround sound: 4 stereo speakers
704 KB total
(192 KB program RAM,[71]
512 KB VRAM)
[159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [72]
Oct 1985 Sega Space Harrier 2x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz each (3.5 MIPS),
8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz (0.73 MIPS),
8-bit Intel 8751 @ 8 MHz
Sega Super Scaler 171-5320 graphics board
(315-5011 sprite line comparitor,
315-5012 sprite generator,
2x 315-5049 tilemap chips,
PAL chipset[69])
32,000 colours,
320x224 @ 60 fps,
128 sprites per frame,
32,000 sprite capacity,
Sprite scaling,
5 hardware layers,[70]
Translucent shadows
Sega 074-5907 Sound Board,
Sega DA sound system,
Yamaha YM2203 (OPN) @ 4 MHz,
SegaPCM @ 8 MHz
3 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
16 PCM channels: 8-bit @ 31.25 kHz
1.16 MB total
(384 KB program RAM,[73]
804 KB VRAM[74])
[166]

[167] [168] [169] [75] [170] [171] [72] [172]

Sep 1986 Sega Out Run 2x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz each (4.4 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS)

Sega Super Scaler 171-5377-01 (837-6064 / 837-6906) graphics board @ 25.2 MHz,
Sega PGA package chipset,[76]
Sega PAL chipset,[77]
Sega 315-5242 color encoder
32,768 colours,
320x224 @ 30-60 fps,
128 sprites per frame,[78]
Sprite scaling,
6 hardware layers,[79]
Translucent shadows
Sega DA sound system,
Yamaha YM2151 (OPM) @ 4 MHz,
Yamaha YM3012 (DAC),
SegaPCM (315-5218) @ 8 MHz
5 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
2 stereo DAC channels,
16 stereo 8-bit PCM channels
2.5 MB total
(672 KB program RAM,[80]
1888 KB VRAM[81])
[173] [174][175] [72] [176] [177] [178]
Nov 1986 Konami Dual 68000 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz (1.8 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz (0.53 MIPS)

Konami GX763 350860A video board,
16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz (1.8 MIPS),
Konami K051316 video processor
4096 colours on screen,
16.78 million colour palette,
336x256 @ 60 fps,
Unlimited sprites,
Sprite scaling & rotation,
6 hardware layers,[82]
Transparency

Yamaha YM2151 (OPM) @ 3.6 Mhz,

Konami SCC K007232 @ 3.6 Mhz

5 stereo FM channels,
6 stereo PSG channels,
5 stereo 12-bit PCM channels
1.5 MB total
(236 KB program RAM,[83]
1.27 MB VRAM[84]
[179] [180] [181] [182]
July 1987 Sega X Board 16/32-bit Hitachi FD1094 (Motorola 68000) @ 12.5 MHz (2.2 MIPS),
16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz (2.2 MIPS),
8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS)
Sega Super Scaler 171-5494 (834-6335 / 834-6493) board,
Sega PGA package chipset,[85]
Sega PAL chipset,[86]
Sega QFP100 chipset,[87]
Sega QFP120 chipset,[88]
Sega 315-5242 color encoder
49,152 colours,[89][90]
320x224 @ 60 fps,
256 sprites per frame,
Sprite scaling & rotation,
8 hardware layers,[91]
Translucent shadows
Sega 837-7000 Sound Board,
Sega DA sound system,
Yamaha YM2151 (OPM) @ 4 MHz,
Yamaha YM3012 (DAC),
SegaPCM (315-5218) @ 15.7 MHz
5 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
2 DAC channels,
16 stereo 8-bit PCM channels,
4-speaker surround sound
4 MB total
(1.808 MB program RAM,[92]
2.192 MB VRAM[89])
[183] [184] [185] [72] [186] [187] [188] [189]
Dec 1987 Namco System 2

2x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.3 MHz each (4.4 MIPS),
8/16-bit Motorola  68B09 @ 3.1 MHz (1.4 MIPS),
Hitachi HD68705 @ 2.1 MHz,
Namco C68 @ 2.1 MHz

Namco V56 VIDEO 2272961200 (2272963100) Graphics Board,
Namco C graphics chipset,[93]
Namco NDIP28 chipset,[94]
Namco QFP80 chipset,[95]
Namco SDIP64 chip

65,536 colours on screen,[96]
16.78 million colour palette,
384x264 @ 60 fps,
128 sprites per frame,[97]
Sprite scaling & rotation,
8 hardware layers[98]
Namco C121 (Yamaha YM2151) @ 3.6 MHz,

Namco C140 (PCM) @ 12.3 MHz

5 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
24 stereo 12-bit PCM channels @ 21.4 kHz sampling rate
3.5 MB total
(1.25 MB program RAM,[99]
2.25 MB VRAM[96])
[190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195]
1987 Taito Z System 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 16 MHz (2.8 MIPS),

8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz each (0.58 MIPS)

Taito Video Board J1100139A K1100316A,
16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz (2.1 MIPS),
Taito custom GPU chipset[100]
Stereoscopic 3D,
4096 colours,
320x256 @ 60 fps,
56 sprites per frame,[101]
5 hardware layers[102]
Yamaha YM2610 (OPNB) @ 8 MHz 4 FM channels,
3 PSG channels,
1 noise channel,
7 ADPCM channels @ 18–56 kHz,
LFO,[103]
4.1 surround sound
2 MB total
(1 MB program RAM,[104]
1 MB VRAM)
[196] [197] [198]
May 1988 Sega Y Board 3x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz each (6.6 MIPS),

2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz each (1.2 MIPS)

Sega Super Scaler 837-6566 Video Board,
Sega sprite graphics chipset,[105]
2x Sega PAL chipsets,[106]
Sega QFP hardware chipset,[107]
Sega video chipset,[108]
Sega 315-5242 color encoder
65,536 colours,[109][110]
342x262 @ 60 fps,
Unlimited sprites,
Sprite scaling & rotation,
3 hardware planes[111]
Sega DA sound system,
Yamaha YM2151 (OPM) @ 4 MHz,
SegaPCM (315-5218) @ 15.7 MHz,
Sega 315-5280 (PAL) Z80 address decoder
5 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
16 stereo 8-bit PCM channels
5.5 MB total
(1 MB program RAM,[112]
4.5 MB VRAM[110])
[72][113]
April 1990 Sega R-360 3x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz each (6.6 MIPS),

2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz each (1.2 MIPS)

Sega Y Board,
Sega sprite graphics chipset,[105]
2x Sega PAL chipsets,[106]
Sega QFP hardware chipset,[107]
Sega video chipset,[108]
Sega 315-5242 color encoder
65,536 colours,[109][110]
342x262 @ 60 fps,
Unlimited sprites,
Sprite scaling & rotation,
3 hardware planes,[111]
Pre-rendered 3D graphics
Sega DA sound system,
Yamaha YM2151 (OPM) @ 4 MHz,
SegaPCM (315-5218) @ 15.7 MHz,
Sega 315-5280 (PAL) Z80 address decoder
5 stereo FM channels,
3 stereo PSG channels,
16 stereo 8-bit PCM channels,
4-speaker surround sound
17 MB total
(1 MB program RAM,[112]
16 MB VRAM[110])
[72][113] [199] [200]

32-bit hardware (1988 onwards)

1988-1991

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
1988 Namco System 21 32-bit Motorola 68020 @ 12.3 MHz (3.8 MIPS, 95 kFLOPS),[114]
2x 16/32-bit Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 (Motorola 68000) @ 12.3 MHz each (4.4 MIPS),
8/16-bit Motorola 68B09 (6809) @ 3.1 MHz (1.4 MIPS),
Hitachi HD63705 @ 2.1 MHz
Namco DSP graphics board @ 40 MHz,
Namco PGN polygon & OBJ object boards @ 20-39 MHz each,
5x 32-bit Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320C20 (DSP)[115] @ 25 MHz each (63 MIPS),
Namco graphics chipset[116]
47,000 3D polygons per sec,[117]
2D bitmap layer,
131,072 colours out of 16.78 million palette,
496x480 @ 60 fps
Yamaha YM2151 @ 3.6 MHz,
Yamaha YM3012,
Namco C140 @ 12.3 MHz,
Sanyo LC7880 (DAC)
5 FM channels,
3 PSG channels,
2 FM DAC channels,
24 PCM (12-bit) channels @ 21.4 kHz,
16-bit PCM DAC
6 MB total
(1.5 MB program RAM,[118]
4.5 MB VRAM[119])
[120][121]
1989 Namco System 21B 2x 32-bit Motorola 68020 @ 12.3 MHz each (7.6 MIPS, 190 kFLOPS),
4x 16/32-bit Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 (Motorola 68000) @ 12.3 MHz each (8.8 MIPS),
2x 8/16-bit Motorola 68B09 (6809) @ 3.1 MHz each (2.8 MIPS),
2x Hitachi HD63705 @ 2.1 MHz each
2x Namco DSP graphics boards @ 40 MHz each,
2x PGN polygon boards & 2x OBJ object boards @ 20-39 MHz each,
8x 32-bit TI TMS320C25 (DSP) @ 25 MHz each (128 MIPS),
Namco graphics chipset[116]
96,000 3D polygons per sec,[117]
2D sprite layer,
262,144 colours out of 16.78 million palette,
496x480 @ 60 fps
2x Yamaha YM2151 @ 3.6 MHz,
2x Yamaha YM3012,
2x Namco C140 @ 12.3 MHz,
2x Sanyo LC7880
10 FM channels,
6 PSG channels,
4 FM DAC channels,
48 PCM (12-bit) channels @ 21.4 kHz,
2x 16-bit PCM DAC
12 MB total
(3 MB program RAM,[118]
9 MB VRAM[122])
[120][121][123]
April 1990 Namco System 21C 9x 32-bit Motorola 68020 @ 25 MHz each (69 MIPS, 1.8 MFLOPS),[124]
10x 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 @ 12.3 MHz each (22 MIPS),
2x Hitachi HD63705 @ 2.1 MHz each
16x Namco DSP graphics boards,
16x PGN polygon boards & 16x OBJ object boards,
8x V-MIX boards,
80x 32-bit TI TMS320C25 @ 40 MHz each (2048 MIPS),
16x Laserdisc players,
Namco graphics chipset[116]
530,000 3D polygons per sec,[117]
2D sprites,
Laserdisc FMV,
2.1 million colours out of 16.78 million palette,
7936x512 @ 60 fps,
16 screens
Namco Sound Board,
16x Laserdisc players,
4x Namco C140,
2x Sanyo LC7880,
2x Yamaha YM2151,
2x Yamaha YM3012
16x laserdisc audio (16-bit) @ 44.1 kHz,
96 PCM (12-bit) channels @ 21.4 kHz,
2x 16-bit DAC,
10 FM & 6 PSG channels,
4-speaker surround
35.5 MB total
(17.5 MB program RAM,[125]
18 MB VRAM[126])
[120][121][123] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205]

1992 onwards

Date Arcade system CPU GPU Graphics Sound chip(s) Audio RAM Ref(s)
1992 Sega Model 1 2x 32-bit NEC V60 @ 16 MHz each (7 MIPS),
2x 16/32-bit Toshiba TMP68000N (Motorola 68000) @ 12 MHz each (4.2 MIPS),
2x 8/16-bit Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz each (1.2 MIPS)
2x Sega 837-7894 (171-6080D) Video CG Boards,
10x 32-bit Fujitsu TGP MB86933 FPU @ 20 MHz each (160 MFLOPS, 200 MIPS),[127]
20x Sega Custom QFP160 graphics chips
360,000 3D polygons per sec,
1.08 million vectors per sec,
2.4 million pixels per sec,
4 scrolling layers,
Shading capabilities,[128]
16.78 million colours,[129]
3968x449 @ 60 fps,
8 screens
2x Sega 837-8679 sound cards,
4x Sega MultiPCM @ 8 MHz each,
2x Yamaha YM3834 (YM3438) @ 8 MHz each
112 PCM channels @ 44.1 kHz,[130]
2048 PCM samples @ 44.1 kHz,[131]
12 FM channels,
4-speaker surround sound
20 MB total
(4 MB program RAM,[132]
16 MB VRAM[133])
[206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214]

Notes and references

  1. http://www.computerspacefan.com/ComputerSpace.pdf
  2. Al Alcorn Interview
  3. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=756
  4. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=759
  5. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=787
  6. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=791
  7. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=792
  8. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=794
  9. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=927
  10. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=931
  11. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=735
  12. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=736
  13. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=554
  14. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=865
  15. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=555
  16. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=556
  17. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=557
  18. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=549
  19. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=559
  20. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=558
  21. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=594
  22. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=595
  23. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=512
  24. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=832
  25. https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/drivers/n8080.c
  26. https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/drivers/dkong.c
  27. https://web.archive.org/web/20120704103034/http://mamedev.org/source/src/mame/drivers/punchout.c.html
  28. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=683
  29. SNK 6502 Hardware. Retrieved on 2015-01-13.
  30. SNK Rockola Hardware. Retrieved on 2008-10-30.
  31. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=796
  32. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=797
  33. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=625
  34. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=629
  35. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=628
  36. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=650
  37. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=656
  38. https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/drivers/gunbustr.c
  39. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=663
  40. Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time, p. 197, Focal Press, ISBN 0-240-81146-1
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 Intel Processors, Chihuahua Institute of Technology
  42. MIPS = Million Instructions Per Second
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 43.7 Obsolete Microprocessors, RetroComputing
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 Hexadecimal convertors:
  45. 45.0 45.1 Sega Vic Dual, MAME
  46. 46.0 46.1 Taito 8080, MAME
  47. 47.0 47.1 Nintendo 8080, MAME
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Namco Galaxian, System 16: The Arcade Museum
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 Galaxian hardware (General and Video), MAME
  50. 50.0 50.1 Galaxian, RetroGames
  51. 51.0 51.1 Includes 4 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
  52. Namco Galaga custom GPU chipset:
    • Namco 00xx VRAM Addresser
    • Namco 02xx Custom Shifter
    • Namco 03xx Playfield Data Buffer
    • Namco 04xx Address Buffer
    • Namco 05xx Video Controller
  53. 53.0 53.1 Namco custom chips, MultiGame
  54. 54.0 54.1 Turbo hardware, MAME
  55. 55.0 55.1 Sega Z80, System 16 Arcade Museum
  56. 72 KB RAM for Sega VCO Object (1982) includes:
    • 32 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
    • 2.5 KB fast SRAM (Static RAM)
  57. Konami 6809 program RAM includes:
    • 8 KB sound RAM
    • 30 KB other RAM
  58. Punch-Out program RAM includes:
    • 2.1 KB sound RAM
    • 60 KB other RAM
  59. Konami Dual 6809's program RAM includes:
    • 32 KB sound RAM
    • 24 KB other RAM
  60. Konami Dual 6809's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 4 KB palette RAM
    • 96 Bytes sprite RAM
    • 25.9 KB scrolling RAM
    • 13 KB other VRAM
  61. Taito Z80 (1984) program RAM includes:
    • 24 KB sound RAM
    • 11 KB other RAM
  62. Taito Z80 (1984) VRAM includes:
    • 3.875 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM), including:
      • 2 KB palette RAM
      • 96 Bytes sprite RAM
    • 2.125 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
  63. Namco Pole Position custom GPU chipset:
    • 3x Namco 02xx Custom Shifter
    • 2x Namco 03xx Playfield Data Buffer
    • Namco 04xx Address Buffer
    • Namco 09xx Sprite RAM Buffer
  64. Tatsumi TX-1's program RAM includes:
    • 40 KB sound RAM
    • 100 KB other RAM
  65. Tatsumi TX-1's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 16 KB GPU VRAM
    • 28 KB CPU VRAM
  66. Namco System 16 program RAM includes:
    • 24 KB sound RAM
    • 32 KB other RAM
  67. Equites program RAM includes:
    • 4 KB NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM)
    • 8 KB sound RAM
  68. Equites VRAM includes:
    • 512 Bytes sprite RAM
  69. 69.0 69.1 PAL chipset for Sega Hang-On and Sega Space Harrier systems:
    • 2x Sega 315-5107 horizontal timing control
    • Sega 315-5108 vertical timing control
    • Sega 315-5122 timing chip
  70. 70.0 70.1 Hardware layers for Sega Hang-On and Sega Space Harrier systems:
    • 2 tile layers
    • 1 text layer
    • 1 sprite layer
    • 1 road layer
  71. Sega Hang-On program RAM includes:
    • 25 KB sound RAM
    • 167 KB other RAM
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 72.4 72.5 Sega 16-bit common hardware, iMAME4all
  73. Sega Space Harrier's program RAM includes:
    • 25 KB sound RAM
    • 359 KB other RAM
  74. Sega Space Harrier's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 192 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 612 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
  75. Bernard Perron & Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), Video game theory reader two, p. 157, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-96282-X
  76. Sega Out Run PGA package chipset:
    • Sega 315-5195 memory mapper
    • Sega 315-5211 sprite generator
    • Sega 315-5197 (PGA135) tilemap generator
  77. Sega Out Run PAL chipset:
    • 2x Sega 315-5155 road bit extraction chips
    • Sega 315-5222 (Signetics PLS153N) road mixing chip
    • Sega 315-5227a PAL chip
    • Sega 315-5228 PAL chip
  78. Sega Out Run sprites:
    • 128 sprites per frame
    • 8x8 pixels per tile
  79. Sega Out Run hardware layers:
    • 2 tile layers
    • 2 road layers
    • 1 sprite layer
    • 1 text layer
  80. Sega Out Run's 672 KB program RAM includes:
    • 80 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 3 KB sound RAM
    • 589 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
  81. Sega Out Run VRAM includes:
    • 436 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 1452 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
  82. Konami Dual 68000 hardware layers:
    • 2 scrolling layers
      • 1 background layer
      • 1 foreground layer
    • 1 sprite layer
    • 1 road layer
    • 1 sky layer
    • 1 text layer
  83. Konami Dual 68000 program RAM includes:
    • 28 KB sound RAM
    • 208 KB other RAM
  84. Konami Dual 68000 VRAM includes:
    • 384 KB road RAM
    • 96 KB sprite RAM
    • 640 KB blitter RAM
    • 544 KB page RAM
    • 108 KB color-table palette RAM, including 4 KB on-screen palette RAM
    • 20 KB text RAM
    • 149 KB other VRAM
  85. Sega X Board PGA package chipset:
    • Sega 315-5197 (PGA135) tilemap generator
    • Sega 315-5211A (PGA179) sprite generator
  86. Sega X Board PAL chipset:
    • Sega 315-5278 sprite ROM bank control
    • Sega 315-5279 video mixing chip
  87. Sega QFP100 chipset
    • 2x Sega 315-5248 hardware multiplier chips
    • Sega 315-5275 road generator
  88. Sega QFP120 chipset:
    • 2x Sega 315-5249 hardware divider chips
    • 2x Sega 315-5250 hardware comparator chips
  89. 89.0 89.1 Sega X Board VRAM includes:
    • 528 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
      • 48 KB on-screen palette RAM
    • 1717 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
  90. 24,576 on-screen colours with shadow/highlight capability
  91. Sega X Board hardware layers:
    • 4 tile layers
    • 2 road layers
    • 1 sprite layer
    • 1 text layer
  92. Sega X Board program RAM includes:
    • 100 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
      • 6 KB sound SRAM
      • 2 KB Dual-Port SRAM (DPRAM)
      • 92 KB other SRAM
    • 1752 KB standard DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
  93. Namco C graphics chipset:
    • Namco C45 Land Generator
    • Namco C102 ROZ (Rotating/Zooming) Memory Access Control
    • Namco C106 OBJ X-Axis Zoom Control
    • Namco C107 Land Line Buffer
    • Namco C116 Screen Waveform Generator
    • Namco C123 GFX Tile Memory Decoder
    • Namco C134 Object Memory Address Generator
    • Namco C135 OBJ Line Matching
    • Namco C145 Tile Screen Memory Access Controller
    • Namco C146 OBJ Line Buffer Steering
    • Namco C156 Pixel Stream Combo
  94. Namco NDIP28 chipset:
    • Namco 134
    • Namco 135
    • Namco 137
  95. Namco QFP80 chipset:
    • Namco 45
    • Namco 145
  96. 96.0 96.1 Namco System 2 VRAM includes:
    • 128 KB screen control register RAM
    • 128 KB on-screen text RAM
    • 256 KB color-table palette RAM, including 64 KB on-screen palette RAM
    • 256 KB sprite RAM
    • 256 KB tilemap RAM
    • 512 KB road RAM
    • 768 KB ROZ (Rotating/Zooming) RAM
  97. Namco System 2 sprites:
    • 128 sprites per frame
    • 2048 sprite capacity
    • Variable sprite sizes up to 64x64 pixels
  98. Namco System 2 hardware layers:
    • 3 scrolling tilemap layers (512×512 pixels each)
    • 1 scrolling tilemap layer (512×256 pixels)
    • 2 static tilemap layers (288×224 pixels each)
    • 1 ROZ (Rotating/Zooming) tilemap layer (256x256 tiles each)
    • 1 roadway generator
  99. Namco System 2 program RAM includes:
    • 36 KB Dual-Port RAM (DPRAM)
    • 40 KB sound RAM
    • 1204 KB other RAM
  100. Taito custom GPU chipset:
    • Taito TC0020VAR (QFP124)
    • 3x Taito TC0050VDZ (QFP100) Motion Object Generator
    • Taito TC0100SCN Tilemap Generator
    • Taito TC0110PCR Palette Generator
    • Taito TC0150ROD Road Generator
  101. 1.75 KB sprite RAM. Variable sprite sizes from 8x8 to 128x128 pixels.
  102. 64x64 tiled scrolling background plane of 8x8 tiles, foreground plane, road drawing plane, sprite plane, text plane
  103. low frequency oscillator
  104. Including 768 KB main RAM and 9 KB sound RAM
  105. 105.0 105.1 Sega Y Board sprite chipset:
    • Sega 315-5196 sprite generator
    • Sega 315-5305 sprite generator
    • Sega 315-5296 I/O sprite chip
  106. 106.0 106.1 Sega Y Board PAL chipsets:
    • Video board chipset
      • Sega 315-5213 sprite chip
      • Sega 315-5319
      • Sega 315-5325
    • CPU board chipset
      • Sega 315-5314
      • Sega 315-5315
      • Sega 315-5316
      • Sega 315-5317
      • Sega 315-5318
      • Sega 315-5328
  107. 107.0 107.1 Sega QFP hardware chipset:
    • 3x Sega 315-5248 (QFP100) hardware multiplier chips
    • 3x Sega 315-5249 (QFP120) hardware divider chips
  108. 108.0 108.1 Sega Y Board video chipset:
    • 2x Sega 315-5306 video sync & rotation chips
    • Sega 315-5312 video mixing priority chip
  109. 109.0 109.1 32,768 colours with variable luminosity
  110. 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 Sega Y Board VRAM includes:
    • 1248 KB sprite RAM
    • 36 KB rotation RAM
    • 64 KB on-screen palette RAM
  111. 111.0 111.1 Sega Y Board hardware planes:
    • 2 full rotating & scaling sprite planes
    • Sky gradient plane
  112. 112.0 112.1 Including 12 KB sound RAM
  113. 113.0 113.1 Sega Y Board references:
  114. kFLOPS = kiloFLOPS = thousand Floating-point Operations Per Second
  115. DSP = Digital Signal Processor
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 Namco custom graphics chipset:
    • Namco 138
    • Namco 165
    • Namco 187
    • Namco 195
    • 2x Namco 197
    • Namco 317
    • 4x Namco 327
    • 4x Namco 342
    • Namco C355 Motion OBJ(B) chip
  117. 117.0 117.1 117.2 3D polygon graphics features include:
    • Flat shading
    • Depth cueing
    • Z-buffering
  118. 118.0 118.1 Namco System 21's program RAM includes:
    • 212 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 48 KB sound RAM
    • 32 KB microcontroller RAM
    • 22 KB DPRAM (Dual-Port RAM)
  119. Namco System 21's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 618 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
      • 128 KB DSP (Digital Signal Processor) SRAM
      • 490 KB other SRAM
    • 194 KB polygon RAM
    • 128 KB on-screen palette RAM
    • 48 KB buffer RAM
    • 2 KB depth-cueing RAM
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 Namco System 21 references:
  121. 121.0 121.1 121.2 MC68020 Product Summary Page
  122. Namco System 21B's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 1256 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
      • 276 KB DSP (Digital Signal Processor) SRAM
      • 980 KB other SRAM
    • 128 KB buffer RAM
    • 256 KB on-screen palette RAM
    • 772 KB polygon RAM
    • 4 KB depth-cueing RAM
  123. 123.0 123.1 Texas Instruments TMS320C25, Datasheets
  124. MFLOPS = Million Floating-point Operations Per Second)
  125. Namco System 21C's program RAM includes:
    • 512 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 178 KB sound RAM
    • 256 KB triple-port Computational SRAM (CRAM)
    • 768 KB NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM)
    • 15.75 MB Personal Boards (Player Terminals) RAM
  126. Namco System 21C's Video RAM (VRAM) includes:
    • 4 MB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 512 KB frame buffer RAM
    • 2 MB DSP (Digital Signal Processor) SRAM
    • 2 MB on-screen palette RAM
    • 2 MB polygon point RAM
    • 2 MB polygon object RAM
    • 16 KB depth-cueing RAM
  127. Fujitsu TGP MB86233/MB86933 FPU (Floating Point Unit)
    • 16 MFLOPS (Million Floating-point Operations Per Second) @ 20 MHz
    • 20 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second) @ 20 MHz [1]
    • Co-processor abilities: Floating decimal point operation function, axis rotation operation function, 3D matrix operation function
  128. Flat shading, diffuse reflection, specula reflection, alpha channel, alpha blending, anti-aliasing
  129. 65,536 colours with 256 levels of variable luminosity, per screen.
  130. 28 PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation) channels per Sega MultiPCM sound chip
  131. 512 PCM samples per Sega MultiPCM sound chip
  132. Sega Model 1 program RAM includes:
    • 2 MB main RAM
    • 768 KB high-speed SRAM (Static RAM)
    • 128 KB sound RAM
    • 16 KB high-speed sound SRAM
  133. Including 1264 KB high-speed video SRAM (Static RAM), i.e. 632 KB SRAM per CG board

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