During the Middle Ages, Catalan kings conquered and presided over several kingdoms on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Iberian peninsula to parts of Italy and Greece. This confederation/empire became a major naval and trading power in the Mediterranean area. Catalans kept their self-rule after a dynastic union with the neighbouring kingdom of Castile, and sided with England and Austria against France and Castile in the Spanish Succession War. In 1713, England signed the Treaty of Utrecht and dropped out of the alliance, and the Catalans were finally defeated in 1714, losing their national rights as a result.
Initial government is Despotism.