The Florentine Republic was founded upon the overthrow of the Margraviate of Tuscany in 1115. Despite its seemingly endemic political intrigues, it became the most magnificent city-state of its era. Florence was the cultural and philosophical leader of Italy and indeed Europe in Renaissance, bringing forth such luminaries as Dante, Savonarola, Michelangelo, Da Vinci and Machiavelli. The De' Medici family eventually managed to consolidate its hold on Florence, and in the 16th century the Republic was turned into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1859 it was annexed by Italy.
Initial government is Despotism.