|Grand Theft Auto|
Grand Theft Auto series logo, which has
been used since Grand Theft Auto III
|Genres||Action, parody and sandbox|
Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design)
Grand Theft Auto|
Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City|
"Grand Theft Auto" (commonly abbreviated "GTA") is a video game series created in the United Kingdom by Dave Jones, then later by English brothers Dan Houser and Sam Houser, and game designer Zachary Clarke and primarily developed by Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design) and published by Rockstar Games.
The gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, driving, occasional role-playing, stealth, parodying of American current events, and racing elements and has gained controversy for its adult nature and violent themes. The series focuses around many different protagonists who attempt to rise through the ranks of the criminal underworld, although their motives for doing so vary in each game. The antagonists are commonly characters who have betrayed the protagonist or their organization, or who has the most impact impeding their progress.
British video game developer DMA Design began the series in 1997, and it currently has ten stand-alone games and four expansion packs. Film veterans such as Michael Madsen, Ray Liotta, Burt Reynolds, Dennis Hopper, Gary Busey, Samuel L. Jackson, Chris Penn, James Woods, Joe Pantoliano, Frank Vincent, Robert Loggia, Kyle MacLachlan and Peter Fonda have all voiced major characters in many installments in the series. The name of the series and its games are derived from grand theft auto, a term referring to motor vehicle theft.
The games allow players to take on the role of a criminal in a big city, typically an individual who rises through the ranks of organized crime through the course of the game. The player is given various missions by kingpins in the city underworld which must be completed to progress through the storyline. Assassinations, and other crimes feature regularly, but occasionally taxi driving, firefighting, street racing, bus driving or learning to fly helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft are also involved.
In later titles, notably those released after Grand Theft Auto 2, the player is given a more developed storyline in which they are forced to overcome an unfortunate event (e.g. being betrayed and left for dead), which serves as motivation for the character to advance up the criminal ladder and ultimately leads to the triumph of the character by the end of the storyline. The Grand Theft Auto series, belonging to a genre of free-roaming video games called "sandbox games", grants a large amount of freedom to the player in deciding what to do and how to do it through multiple methods of transport and weapons. Unlike most traditional action games, which are structured as a single track series of levels with linear gameplay, in GTA the player can determine the missions they want to undertake, and their relationships with various characters are changed based on these choices. The cities of the games can also be roamed freely at any point in the game, and are examples of open world video game environments which offer accessible buildings with additional minor missions in addition to the main storyline. There are exceptions: missions follow a linear, overarching plot, and some city areas must be unlocked over the course of the game.
Grand Theft Auto III and later subsequent games have more prevalent voice acting, and radio stations, which simulate driving to music with disc jockeys, radio personalities, commercials, talk radio, pop music, and American culture.
The use of vehicles in an explorable urban environment provides a basic simulation of a working city, complete with pedestrians who generally obey traffic signals. Further details are used to flesh out an open-ended atmosphere that has been used in several other games, such as The Simpsons Hit & Run, which has less emphasis on crime or violence.
The Grand Theft Auto series is set in a fictional version of the United States, in a number of different time periods. Grand Theft Auto introduced three main locations: Liberty City, based upon New York City, Vice City, based upon Miami, and finally San Andreas, based upon Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and San Francisco.
The release of subsequent games in the series, and overall the move from a 2D to a 3D platform, expanded and updated the original locales, starting with the release of Grand Theft Auto III, set once again in Liberty City, and following on to Vice City in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.
With the release of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, the fictional universe was further expanded with a whole state available to the player. The state of San Andreas is based on the states of California and Nevada. San Andreas consists of three cities: Las Venturas (Las Vegas), San Fierro (San Francisco), Los Santos (Los Angeles) and the surrounding towns and areas of desert, water, woodland and countryside between.
Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories, originally released on the PlayStation Portable handheld console, returned once again to their respective eponymous cities.
Grand Theft Auto IV and the subsequent expansion packs Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned and Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony were once again set in the fictional Liberty City. A version of New Jersey, Alderney City was also represented in the game.
The handheld game, Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars was also set in Liberty City.
Other places in the same fictional universe as the Grand Theft Auto series also exist. Carcer City and Cottonmouth are two different cities that were used in the Manhunt series. There is also Bullworth from Bully.
So far, the only venture to a locale other than the USA has been in the two expansion packs Grand Theft Auto: London 1969 and Grand Theft Auto: London 1961, which were based in a version of real-life city London.
|First||Grand Theft Auto||DMA Design, Tarantula Studios||PS1||Windows, DOS||Game Boy Color||None||1997|
|London, 1969|| DMA Design, Tarantula Studios, |
Rockstar Canada, Runecraft
|London, 1961|| DMA Design, Tarantula Studios, |
Rockstar Canada, Runecraft
|Second||Grand Theft Auto 2||DMA Design, Tarantula Studios||PS1||Windows||Game Boy Color||Dreamcast|
|Third||Grand Theft Auto III||DMA Design, Rockstar Vienna||PS2||Windows, Xbox||None||None||2001|
|Vice City||Rockstar North, Rockstar Vienna||PS2||Windows, Xbox||None||None||2002|
|Advance||Digital Eclipse||None||None||Game Boy Advance||None||2004|
|San Andreas||Rockstar North||PS2||Windows, Xbox||None||None|
|Liberty City Stories||Rockstar Leeds, Rockstar North||PSP, PS2||None||None||None||2005|
|Vice City Stories||Rockstar Leeds, Rockstar North||PSP, PS2||None||None||None||2006|
|Fourth||Grand Theft Auto IV||Rockstar North, Rockstar Toronto||PS3||Windows, Xbox 360||None||None||2008|
|The Lost and Damned||Rockstar North||PS3||Windows, Xbox 360||None||None||2009|
|Chinatown Wars||Rockstar Leeds, Rockstar North||PSP||None||DS||iOS|
|The Ballad of Gay Tony||Rockstar North||PS3||Windows, Xbox 360||None||None|
The Grand Theft Auto series may be divided into canons, based on the inclusion of a numbering after the recognizable title name (e.g. Grand Theft Auto III) after the original Grand Theft Auto's release, and to a certain extent, the type of graphics engine used.
Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto, the first game in the Grand Theft Auto series, was created by British video game developer DMA Design, and was released for Microsoft DOS/Windows in 1997/1998 and also for the PlayStation . The game is set in three different fictional cities, Liberty City, San Andreas and Vice City. A reduced Game Boy Color port was later released.
Subsequently, two expansion packs were offered, both under the name of Grand Theft Auto: London 1969.
Grand Theft Auto 2
The second game in the series, Grand Theft Auto 2, was developed for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation, and Dreamcast and released in the year 1999. Set in the indeterminable future, it featured updated graphics and somewhat different gameplay based upon the player's appeal to various criminal organizations.
A reduced Game Boy Color port was also produced. Unlike the other games of the Grand Theft Auto series, Grand Theft Auto 2 was the only game released in its era of bicentennial gaming. It is also the only Grand Theft Auto game to have a "T" rating for a PlayStation Console, it is also the only sequel to have a digit in the title instead of a Roman numeral.
Grand Theft Auto III
Grand Theft Auto III was released in October 2001, and served as the breakthrough for the franchise. The game's setting takes place around that time, in fictional Liberty City, which is loosely based on New York City, but also incorporates elements of other American cities. Grand Theft Auto III brought a third-person view to the series, rather than the traditional top-down view of earlier titles (although the view is still made available as an optional camera angle). For the first time, the problem of navigating in the huge sandbox game was solved by implementing a constant GPS triggered mini-map that highlights the player's position as well as those of current targets. Graphics were also updated with a new 3D game engine. The gameplay engine expanded the explorable world of GTA III, using a mission-based approach. Multiplayer was discarded (third party mods were later released, allowing for multiplayer gameplay), but GTA III improved in many other areas such as voice-acting and plot (in previous games, there was speech only in short animated cut scenes between levels, while other communication was simply subtitles running on the bottom of the screen).
After the success of Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was released in 2002. This game was set in 1986 in Vice City, which was based on Miami, Florida. The game's plot focuses on the cocaine trade during the 1980s. Vice City was the first game to introduce fully functional flying vehicles that could be used by the player, such as seaplanes and helicopters. It also featured a variety of new weapons and vehicles.
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, released in October 2004, is set in 1992, focusing on California gang life and the awakening of the drug epidemic brought on by crack cocaine. The setting was in the fictional state of San Andreas, which was based on some California and Nevada cities, specifically Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Las Vegas. Their counterparts are Los Santos, San Fierro, and Las Venturas respectively. The game also included a countryside in between Los Santos and San Fierro and also between Los Santos and Las Venturas, and a desert in between Las Venturas and San Fierro.
Grand Theft Auto (unofficially referred to as Grand Theft Auto Advance), for the Game Boy Advance, was also released in 2004. Originally developed as a top-down conversion of GTA III, it eventually became an original game. Unlike the Game Boy Color ports of Grand Theft Auto and Grand Theft Auto 2, Grand Theft Auto did not tone down the violence and profanity common to the GTA series. The game received an "M" rating from the ESRB. It was developed by an external developer, Digital Eclipse.
In 2005 and 2006, Rockstar released two games for the PlayStation Portable, both developed by Rockstar Leeds. Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories is a prequel to Grand Theft Auto III and set in Liberty City in 1998. A PlayStation 2 port was released by Rockstar on 6 June 2006.
Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories was released for the PlayStation Portable on 31 October 2006 and set in Vice City in 1984, two years before the events of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. A PlayStation 2 port of the game was released on 6 March 2007. It is the last game of the third generation series, and the final game in the Grand Theft Auto III canon.
In in-game chronological order (not the order they were released in) the third generation Grand Theft Auto games are:
- Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories Set in: 1984 - Released in: 2006
- Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Set in: 1986 - Released in: 2002
- Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas Set in: 1992 - Released in: 2004
- Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories Set in: 1998 - Released in: 2005
- Grand Theft Auto (Game Boy Advance) Set in: 2000 - Released in: 2004
- Grand Theft Auto III Set in: 2001 - Released in: 2001
Grand Theft Auto IV
Grand Theft Auto IV was released on 29 April 2008, after a six month delay. It was the first Grand Theft Auto game to be released simultaneously for both Sony and Microsoft's video game consoles. In August 2008, Rockstar announced that it was going to publish GTA IV for PC. GTA IV's game engine is the Rockstar Advanced Game Engine (also known as RAGE) used in Rockstar Games Presents Table Tennis and the Euphoria physics engine. The game once again takes place in a redesigned Liberty City that very closely resembles New York City, much more than previous renditions.
Microsoft officially announced a "strategic alliance" with Rockstar Games over the rights to episodic content through their Xbox Live service at their X06 event. This content was released as Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned on 17 February 2009, and it was available for download, exclusively for the Xbox 360, this was because of the substantial $50 million that Microsoft paid Rockstar to keep it exclusive. The strategic alliance was however timed and both DLC episodes and the compilation pack were released on 13 April 2010 on PS3 and PC. The expansion adds some new elements to the existing game and focuses on Johnny Klebitz, the vice president of "The Lost" motorcycle gang.
The second and last Grand Theft Auto IV Downloadable Content episode was called Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony  and was released on 29 October 2009. Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City is a compilation pack released for the Xbox 360 at the same time as The Ballad of Gay Tony. It contains The Lost and Damned and The Ballad of Gay Tony on one disk and does not require an original copy of GTA IV.
Grand Theft Auto IV reintroduced online multiplayer to the series. In most games, a customizable character is used to play, and money earned in game is translated to levels, with more customization available at higher levels. The game does not offer split screen or LAN multiplayer modes on PlayStation 3 or Xbox 360, but there is LAN on the PC mode. Up to 16 (32 on PC) players can play together, doing a variety of games including Death Match, Cops 'n' Crooks, races, Deal Breaker, and Mafiya Work as well as team varieties of Death Match, and Mafiya Work to name just a few.
Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars is the first Grand Theft Auto game to be released on the Nintendo DS, and was announced at the E3 Nintendo Press Conference on 15 July 2008. This game has several new features, such as touch screen mini-games. The game was released on 17 March 2009 in North America and 20 March 2009 to Australia and Europe. The game is rated 18+ by PEGI and the BBFC (Europe, UK) and M by the ESRB (North America). A PSP version was later announced on 22 June 2009 and was released in North America on 20 October 2009. It was also released on the iPhone OS platform 18 January 2010.
In chronological order the fourth generation Grand Theft Auto games are[: ]
- Grand Theft Auto IV - Set in: 2008, released in 2008
- Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned - Set in 2008, released in 2009 (360)/2010 (PS3, PC)
- Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony - Set in 2008, released in 2009 (360)/2010 (PS3, PC)
- Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars - Set in 2009, released in 2009.
When asked about the next Grand Theft Auto Take-Two CEO Ben Feder replied."Unfortunately, we've said everything we're going to say about Grand Theft Auto, I appreciate everyone's concern and interest as to when the game is coming out," he said. "We're not prepared to announce it today, but when we are, we'll let you know."
The series has courted a great deal of controversy. Former lawyer Jack Thompson has been involved in a number of attempts to get families of murder victims to hold the Grand Theft Auto series accountable for the death of their loved ones. Due to his conduct in this and related cases, Thompson was disbarred in 2008, and was fined more than $43,000 by the Florida Bar Association.
On 20 October 2003, the families of Aaron Hamel and Kimberly Bede, two young people shot by teens William and Josh Buckner (who in statements to investigators claimed their actions were inspired by GTA III) filed a US$246 million lawsuit against publishers Rockstar Games, Take-Two Interactive Software, retailer Wal-Mart, and PlayStation 2 manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment America. Rockstar and its parent company, Take-Two, filed for dismissal of the lawsuit, stating in U.S. District Court on 29 October 2003 that the "ideas and concepts as well as the 'purported psychological effects' on the Buckners are protected by the First Amendment's free-speech clause." The lawyer of the victims, Jack Thompson, denied that, but failed in his attempt to move the lawsuit into a state court and under Tennessee's consumer protection act. Two days later, the plaintiffs filed a Notice of Voluntary Dismissal, and the case was closed.
In February 2005, a lawsuit was brought upon the makers and distributors of the Grand Theft Auto series claiming the games caused a teenager to shoot and kill three members of the Alabama police force. The shooting took place in June 2003 when Devin Moore, 17 years old at the time, was taken in for questioning by police in Fayette, Alabama regarding a stolen vehicle. Moore then grabbed a pistol from one of the police officers and shot and killed him along with another officer and dispatcher before fleeing in a police car. One of Moore's attorneys, Jack Thompson, claimed it was GTA's graphic nature—with his constant playing time—that caused Moore to commit the murders, and Moore's family agrees. Damages are being sought from branches of GameStop and Wal-Mart in Jasper, Alabama, the stores from which GTA III and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, respectively, were purchased and also from the games' publisher Take-Two Interactive, and the PlayStation 2 manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment. On March 29, 2006 the case was dismissed and permission to appeal was denied.
In May 2005, Thompson appeared via satellite on the Glenn Beck program on CNN's Headline News. Thompson mentioned Devin Moore and said regarding Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City "There's no doubt in my mind [...] that but for Devin Moore's training on this cop killing simulator, he would not have been able to kill three cops in Fayette, Alabama who are now dead and in the ground. We are suing Take-Two, Sony, Wal-Mart, and GameStop for having trained Devin Moore to kill. He had no history of violence. No criminal record."
In September 2006, Thompson brought another lawsuit, claiming that Cody Posey played the game obsessively before murdering his father Delbert Paul Posey, stepmother Tryone Schmid, and stepsister Marilea Schmid on a ranch in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The suit was filed on behalf of the victims' families. During the criminal trial, Posey's defense team argued he was abused by his father, and tormented by his stepmother. Posey was also taking Zoloft at the time of the killings. The suit alleged that were it not for his obsessive playing of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, the murders would not have taken place. Named in the suit were Cody Posey, Rockstar Games, Take-Two Interactive, and Sony. The suit asked for US$600 million in damages.
In 2009, a six-year-old boy, who claimed he had learned to drive from the game, took his family's car on a 10 mile trip before he crashed.
According to The Guinness World Records 2008 and 2009 Gamer's Edition, it is the most controversial video game series in history, with over 4,000 articles published about it, which include accusations of glamorizing violence, corrupting gamers, and connection to real life crimes.
General Violence (Grand Theft Auto III)
The controversies and complaints began with the advent of Grand Theft Auto III. Some controversy can be attributed to publicist Max Clifford, who planted sensational stories in tabloids in order to help sell the game.
There is also criticism from the focus on illegal activities in comparison with traditional "heroic" roles that other games offer. The main character can commit a wide variety of crimes and violent acts while dealing with only temporary consequences, including the killing of policemen and military personnel. Opponents of violent video games, such as Hillary Clinton and Julia Boseman, believe that players will try to emulate this behavior [, while proponents[ ]who?] believe it provides an emotional outlet, as such actions in real life would have serious consequences.
Critics[who?] have also targeted the exploitative and violent attitude toward women. Although not encouraged to do so, main character Claude may utilize the services of prostitutes, and then subsequently murder and rob them if the player wishes. This utilisation has been subsequently carried on in every single game in the series and is more graphic in IV.
Alleged ethnic discrimination (Grand Theft Auto: Vice City)
The sixth game in the series, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, also came under criticism. One mission in particular, in which the player must instigate a gang war between Haitian and Cuban gangs, has been controversial. Haitian and Cuban anti-defamation groups criticized the game.
Jean-Robert Lafortune of the Haitian American Grassroots Coalition is quoted as saying that "The game shouldn't be designed to destroy human life, it shouldn't be designed to destroy an ethnic group," for this and similar scenarios, including lines in the game's script such as "kill the Haitian cunts" during an altercation between the player and a Haitian gang. After the threat of a lawsuit by the Haitian-American Grassroots Coalition, Rockstar removed the word "Haitians" from this phrase in the game's subtitles.
Sexual content (Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas)
San Andreas contained a sexual minigame that was cut from the game, but remained in the game code, which was discovered in both the console and Windows versions of the game. Dubbed the "Hot Coffee mod", the minigame allowed players to have sex with their in-game girlfriends and also record sextapes.
After the release of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, modders managed to find the unused code in the game and released unofficial patches for the Windows & Xbox (with a modchip) versions and PlayStation 2 version with the use of an Action Replay code enabling the player to engage in these sexual mini-games (dubbed "Hot Coffee" in reference to a euphemism for sex used in the game). These mini-games were left partially intact in the game's code. This prompted application of an AO (Adults Only) ESRB rating to the version of the game containing the leftover code. Take-Two Interactive was forced to re-release the game in order to restore the M (Mature) rating. A class action lawsuit against Take-Two was also filed as a result of the "Hot Coffee" code.
Drunk driving (Grand Theft Auto IV)
One of the controversies involved with this game was Mothers Against Drunk Driving's (MADD) criticism of the ability to drink and drive as a new feature. MADD had even requested ESRB to change the rating of the game from "M" for ages seventeen and up to "AO," for adults only, because they felt it was inappropriate for children, even at the age of seventeen, to experience drunk driving in such a manner. If Rockstar were to comply, Grand Theft Auto IV would be the second game in the series to have the rating converted from "M" for those seventeen and older to "AO" for those eighteen and older. In the final game, drunk driving is a playable event, but protagonist Niko Bellic loudly (and drunkenly) proclaims that it is a "bad idea" and that he "should know better".
The Lost and Damned expansion pack was condemned by US parents group Common Sense Media who issued a public warning against the pack's content due to a full-frontal nudity scene during one of the cut scenes. They claimed the game was "more controversial than its predecessors" because it featured "full frontal nudity".
Critics sometimes treat the release of Grand Theft Auto III as a revolutionary event in the history of video games, much like the release of Doom nearly a decade earlier. Subsequent games that follow this formula of driving and shooting have been called Grand Theft Auto clones. Some reviewers even extended this label to the Driver series, even though this series began years before the release of Grand Theft Auto III. Grand Theft Auto clones are a type of 3D action-adventure game, where players are given the ability to drive any vehicle or fire any weapon as they explore an open world. These games often incorporate violent and criminal themes. Notable games that are comparable to Grand Theft Auto are the Saints Row Series, The Getaway series, The True Crime series, The Godfather, Crackdown, Wheelman, Scarface: The World Is Yours and Just Cause which all use the GTA style of gaming.
From the beginning, the Grand Theft Auto series has been a major success, both critically and financially. It has generated perfect or near perfect reviews and scores on almost all of the games, and has sold over 70 million copies worldwide, as of March 2008. The Times Online reported that Grand Theft Auto IV, the latest console instalment, recorded 609,000 copies in first-day sales, in the UK. In its first week, Grand Theft Auto IV sold approximately 6 million copies worldwide and grossed over $500 million.
The series has broken several records, resulting in Guinness World Records awarding the series 10 world records in the Gamer's Edition 2008. These records include Most Guest Stars in a Video Game Series, Largest Voice Cast in a Video Game (GTA: San Andreas), Largest In-Game Soundtrack (GTA: San Andreas), and Most Successful Entertainment Launch of All Time (GTA IV). Guinness World Records also ranked Grand Theft Auto in third place on their list of top 50 console games of all time based on initial impact and lasting legacy.("GTA: San Andreas") is listed as the most successful game in the PlayStation 2 according to "The Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition".
|Grand Theft Auto||1 million||PS1 Greatest Hits / Platinum||1997|
|Grand Theft Auto: London, 1969||N/A||None||1999|
|Grand Theft Auto: London, 1961||N/A||None|
|Total Era Sales = 1 million+|
|Grand Theft Auto 2||2 million||PS1 Greatest Hits||1999|
|Total Era Sales = 2 million|
|Grand Theft Auto III||15 million||PS2 Greatest Hits / Platinum||2001|
|Grand Theft Auto: Vice City||17.5 million||PS2 Greatest Hits / Platinum||2002|
|Grand Theft Auto Advance||100,000||None||2004|
|Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas||22.50 million||PS2 Greatest Hits / Platinum, Xbox Platinum Hits|
|Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories||10 million||PSP Greatest Hits / Platinum, PS2 Platinum||2005|
|Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories||5 million||PSP Greatest Hits / Platinum, PS2 Platinum||2006|
|Total Era Sales = 93.1 million|
|Grand Theft Auto IV||17.10 million||PS3 Greatest Hits / Platinum, Xbox 360 Platinum Hits||2008|
|Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned||323,000+||N/A||2009|
|Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars||200,000||None|
|Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony||N/A|
|Grand Theft Auto: Episodes From Liberty City||N/A|
|Total Era Sales so far = 25.4 million+|
|Total Grand Theft Auto series sales = 120 million+|
Notes and references
- ↑ The actual release date of Grand Theft Auto is not clear. While Rockstar Games asserts in its official website that the game was released in October 1997, GameSpot and IGN indicated that the game was only released on February or March 1998, respectively.
- ↑ Grand Theft Auto 2's manual uses the phrase "three weeks into the future", and phrases such as "X weeks into the future" or "X minutes into the future" are common phrases meaning "near future"; fictional journal entries on the game's official website, however, suggest 2013 .Rockstargames.com
- ↑ Moses, Travis (2008-01-23). Preview : Grand Theft Auto IV. Gamepro.com. Archived from the original on 2009-07-21 Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- ↑ According to the final entry of the official Liberty Tree "online newspaper", Grand Theft Auto III is implied to be set around the first release of GTA III, specifically, October 2001.
- ↑ GTA IV: Building a Brave New World. uk.xbox360.ign.com (2008-03-28). Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
- ↑ McWhertor, Michael (2 August 2007). Take-Two Execs Explain GTA IV Delay. kotaku.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
- ↑ Totilo, Stephen (2007-03-29). 'GTA IV' Revealed: Game Returning To City That Made It Famous. MTV. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
- ↑ Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City Coming to PlayStation 3 and PC. Rockstar Games (January 29, 2010). Retrieved on 29 January 2010.
- ↑ Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony. RockstarBase.com (2009-05-26). Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- ↑ Robert Purchese (2009-06-22). GTA: Chinatown Wars for PSP. Eurogamer.net. Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- ↑ "Disbarred!", GamePolitics.com, 25 September 2008
- ↑ "Judge's report recommending Permanent disbarment for Jack Thompson", Gamepolitics.com, 9 July 2008
- ↑ "Lawsuit filed against Sony, Wal-Mart over game linked to shootings". CNN. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060503074048/http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/10/22/videogame.lawsuit.ap/index.html. Retrieved 6 May 2006.
- ↑ Families sue over GTAIII-inspired shooting. GameSpot. Retrieved on 6 May 2006.
- ↑ Rockstar seeks to dismiss GTAIII lawsuit. GameSpot. Retrieved on 6 May 2006.
- ↑ "Suit: Video Game Sparked Police Shootings". ABC News. 2005-03-07. Archived from the original on 2005-03-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20050307095559/http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory?id=502424.
- ↑ Grand Theft Auto sparks another lawsuit. GameSpot. Retrieved on 18 August 2006.
- ↑ Reeves, Jay "Court rejects appeal in Alabama suit blaming game for slayings". Associated Press, March 29, 2006.
- ↑ CNN Headline News - Grand Theft Morality Pt.2 YouTube. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- ↑ Video-game maker blamed in '04 killing. The Albuquerque Tribune. Retrieved on 27 September 2006.
- ↑ Jack Thompson Lawsuit to be Filed in Albuquerque. Game Politics.com (2006-09-25). Archived from the original on October 11, 2007 Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
- ↑ Vera Ockenfels, the Cody Posey defense team's mitigation specialist, discusses his conviction (transcript) (Feb. 8, 2006). CourtTV. Retrieved on 27 September 2006.
- ↑ Antigame Crusader in ABQ. ABQnewsSeeker. Retrieved on 27 September 2006.
- ↑ Jack Thompson becomes boring. Joystiq (2006-09-27). Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
- ↑ Jackman, Tom (2009-01-07). "Boy, 6, Misses Bus, Takes Mom's Car Instead". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/06/AR2009010601195.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- ↑ Guinness World Records, ed. Guinness World Records 2009 Gamer's Edition. pp. 108–109. ISBN 1904994459.
- ↑ By gamesindustry.biz • Get more from this author (2003-09-11). Grand Theft Auto in the dock over JP road killing. The Register. Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- ↑ Take-Two self-censoring Vice City. GameSpot. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
- ↑ IGN: Hot Coffee Lawsuit Finally Mopped Up. IGN. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
- ↑ Take-Two Announces 'Hot Coffee' Lawsuit Settlements. Gamasutra. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
- ↑ Sinclair, Brendan (2008-04-30). Mothers against GTAIV's drunk driving. GameSpot. Retrieved on 2008-10-13.
- ↑ Grand Theft Auto IV, Xbox 360/PlayStation 3 release.
- ↑ "Parents Group Warns Against Lost And Damned Nudity", Wired.com, February 21, 2009
- ↑ Game Informer Issue 138 p.73
- ↑ Jeff Gerstmann (2006-03-14). Driver: Parallel Lines Review. GameSpot. Retrieved on 2008-07-24.
- ↑ Sources that refer to GTA-style games as action-adventure games include:
i. Jonathan Parkyn (2006-04-18). Review: The Godfather 3D action game. Personal Computer World. Retrieved on 2008-07-25.
ii. Steve Tilley (2007-04-01). Wii 'Godfather' for newbies only. CANOE. Retrieved on 2008-07-25.;
iii. Sam Bishop (2003-05-16). E3 2003: True Crime: Streets of L.A. Update. IGN. Retrieved on 2008-07-25.
iv. Will Tuttle (2006-08-30). GameSpy Review — Saints Row. GameSpy. Retrieved on 2008-07-25.;
v. Blake Snow (2008-01-30). Just Cause 2 announced for Xbox 360, PS3, PC. GamePro. Retrieved on 2008-07-24.
- ↑ Crackdown Community Q&A. EuroGamer (2007-03-27). Retrieved on 2008-07-25.
- ↑ Douglass C. Perry, Saints Row Review, Saints Row 2 IGN, 28 August 2006
- ↑ True Crime: Streets of LA, IGN, 31 October 2003
- ↑ Gameranking PS2 Average 77%
- ↑ Chris Roper, Scarface: The World Is Yours Review, IGN, 6 October 2006
- ↑ Recommendation of the Board of Directors to Reject Electronic Arts Inc.'s Tender Offer (PDF) 9, 12. Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc. (2008-03-26). Archived from the original on April 8, 2008 Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
- ↑ Sabbagh, Dan. "Grand Theft Auto IV records 609,000 first-day sales", The Times, 1 May 2008
- ↑ Franklin Paul (2008-05-07). Take-Two's Grand Theft Auto 4 sales top $500 million. Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-05-08.
- ↑ Ivan, Tom (2009-02-28). Guinness ranks top 50 games of all time. Computer and Video Games. Retrieved on 2009-03-14.
- ↑ Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc. today announced financial results for its second quarter ended April 30, 2010.. ir.take2games.com. Retrieved on 2010-06-09.[dead link]
- ↑ Plunkett, Luke (2009-03-19). Lost & Damned 'Outsells Killzone 2', Gives Us Sales Ballpark" - Lost & Damned. Kotaku. Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- ↑ By thorsen-ink. Only 200,000 Chinatown Wars sold in March? - GameSpot Rumor Control. GameSpot.com. Retrieved on 2009-07-21.
- Official website
- Grand Theft Auto series at the Open Directory Project
- Download Grand Theft Auto and Grand Theft Auto 2 from Rockstargames.com
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