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Instructions per second

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Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, researchers created standardized tests such as SPECint to attempt to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse.

The term is commonly used in association with a numeric value such as thousand instructions per second (kIPS), million instructions per second (MIPS), Giga instructions per second (GIPS), or Million Operations per Second (MOPS).

Timeline of instructions per second

This is a timeline listing the instructions per second, in terms of MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second), for various microprocessor-based arcade systems, game consoless and personal computers.

The table also lists the bits of the CPU (central processing unit) and GPU (graphics processing unit), as well as the system's floating-point performance in terms of MFLOPS (Million Floating-point Operations Per Second).

Note that the MIPS, MFLOPS and Bits are not always necessarily indicative of graphical prowess, especially when it came to 2D graphics, which were more dependent on the sprite and colour capabilities of a GPU chipset (see Hardware spritesEvolution of arcade video game hardware, and List of home computers by video hardware).

Year Type System Main CPU Main GPU MIPS MFLOPS CPU Bits GPU Bits Sources
1971 Calculator
Computer
Busicom 141-PF Intel 4004 @ 1 MHz N/A 0.056 0 4 0 [1] [2]
1972 Computer Sord SMP80/08 Intel 8008 @ 2 MHz N/A 0.12 0 8 0 [3] [2]
1974 Pinball
Arcade
Spirit of '76 Intel 4004 @ 1 MHz N/A 0.056 0 4 0
Computer Sord SMP80/X Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz N/A 0.29 0 8 0 [3] [2]
1975 Computer Altair 8800 Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz N/A 0.29 0 8 0 [2]
Arcade Taito 8080,
Midway 8080
Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz Fujitsu MB14241 0.29 0 8 8 [4] [2]
1976 Console Fairchild Channel F Fairchild F8 @ 2 MHz N/A 0.14 0 8 0 [5]
Arcade Atari 6502 MOS Technology 6502 @ 756 kHz Discrete Circuitry 0.32 0 8 1 [6] [7]
Computer NEC TK-80 NEC μPD8080AD @ 1.3 MHz N/A 0.38 0 8 0 [8] [2]
1977 Console Bally Astrocade Zilog Z80 @ 1.8 MHz N/A 0.27 0 8 0 [7]
Arcade Taito Z80 Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz Taito Display AO84-91335-C762 0.37 0 8 4 [9] [7]
Computer Apple II MOS Technology 6502 @ 1 MHz Discrete Circuitry 0.43 0 8 1 [7]
Console Atari 2600 MOS Technology 6507 @ 1.19 MHz N/A 0.51 0 8 0 [10] [7]
Computer Sord M200 Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz AMD9511 FPU (Floating Point Unit) @ 4 MHz 0.58 0.01 8 8 [11]
Arcade Sega Vic Dual Zilog Z80 @ 2 MHz,
Intel 8080 @ 2 MHz
Sega Video Logic 0.58 0 8 8 [12] [2] [7]
1978 Console Magnavox Odyssey² Intel 8048 @ 1.8 MHz N/A 0.12 0 8 0 [5]
Computer Hitachi MB-6880 Basic Master Hitachi HD 46800 @ 750 kHz Discrete Circuitry 0.32 0 8 1 [157] [158]
1979 Console Mattel Intellivision General Instrument CP1600 @ 1 MHz N/A 0.2 0 10 0 [13]
Computer NEC PC-8001 NEC µPD780C @ 4 MHz NEC μPD3301D 0.58 0 8 8 [14] [7]
Atari 800 MOS Technology 6502B @ 1.79 MHz CTIA/GTIA 0.76 0 8 8 [7]
Arcade Namco Galaxian Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz Namco LFSR 0.45 0 8 12 [15] [7]
Irem M14 Intel 8085A @ 3 MHz Irem M14S-2,
Irem M14L-2
1.2 0 8 8 [16] [2]
1980 Computer NEC TK-85 NEC μPD8085AC @ 2.5 MHz N/A 0.37 0 8 0 [17] [2]
Tandy TRS-80 Color Computer Motorola 6809E @ 0.895 MHz Motorola 6847 0.37 0 8 8 [7]
Sinclair ZX80 NEC D780C-1 @ 3.25 MHz Discrete Circuitry 0.48 0 8 1 [14] [7]
Hitachi MB-6890 Basic Master Level 3 Motorola 6809 @ 1 MHz Hitachi Custom 0.42 0 8 8 [159]
Commodore VIC-20 MOS Technology 6502 @ 1.02 MHz MOS Technology VIC 0.43 0 8 8 [7]
Arcade Namco Pac-Man Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz 2x Namco NVC293 0.45 0 8 12 [18] [7]
Data East DECO Cassette System MOS Technology 6502 @ 500 kHz Data East DECO 222 @ 750 kHz 0.55 0 8 8 [19] [20] [7]
Taito Z80 (Stratovox) Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz 0.73 0 8 8 [21] [7]
Namco Galaxian,
Konami Scramble
Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 2.5 MHz
Namco LFSR 0.82 0 8 12 [22] [2]
Nintendo Classic Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz 1.2 0 8 8 [23] [7]
1981 Computer IBM PC Intel 8088 @ 4.77 MHz IBM MDA 0.71 0 16 2 [7]
NEC PC-8801 NEC µPD780C @ 4 MHz NEC SGP (Super Graphic Processor) 0.58 0 8 8 [14] [7]
Fujitsu FM-8 Motorola 68A09 @ 1.2 MHz Motorola 6809 @ 1 MHz 0.95 0 8 8 [7]
Arcade Sega VCO Object Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz 8x Sega VCO,
Sega ADC
0.73 0 8 16 [24] [7]
Sega G80 Zilog Z80 @ 8 MHz Sega Display Controller 1.2 0 8 8 [25] [7]
Namco Galaga 2x Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz 1.4 0 8 8 [26] [7]
Taito Z80 (Grand Champion) Zilog Z80 @ 6 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3 MHz
Zilog Z80 @ 6 MHz 2.3 0 8 8 [27] [7]
Irem M27 MOS Technology 6502 @ 5.9 MHz,
Intel 8085A @ 1 MHz
Irem M-27S Character,
Irem M-33 Sub 2 Character
3 0 8 8 [160]
1982 Computer Commodore 64 MOS Technology 6510 @ 1 MHz MOS Technology VIC-II 0.43 0 8 8 [28] [7]
Sinclair ZX Spectrum NEC D780C-1 @ 3.5 MHz Ferranti 6C001E ULA 0.51 0 8 8 [14] [7]
Console ColecoVision NEC 780C-1 @ 3.58 MHz N/A 0.52 0 8 0 [7]
Computer MSX Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz Texas Instruments TMS9918 0.54 0 8 8
Sharp X1 Sharp Z80 A @ 4 MHz Hitachi HD46505 0.58 0 8 8 [29] [7]
Epson QX-10 Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz NEC µPD7220 0.58 0 8 16 [7]
Console Vectrex Motorola 68A09 @ 1.5 MHz N/A 0.63 0 8 0
Atari 5200 MOS Technology 6502C @ 1.79 MHz N/A 0.76 0 8 0 [7]
Arcade Atari 68000 Motorola 68000 @ 6 MHz N/A 1.05 0 16 0 [30] [7]
Computer Epson HC / HX-20 2x Hitachi 6301  @ 0.62 MHz N/A 1.24 0 8 0 [161] [162]
Sony SMC-70 Zilog Z80A @ 4.03 MHz,
Sony SMC-7086 @ 5 MHz
Hitachi HD46505S2 1.34 0 16 8 [31] [32] [7] [2]
Fujitsu FM-7 Fujitsu MBL 68B09 @ 2 MHz Fujitsu MBL 68B09 @ 2 MHz 1.7 0 8 8 [7]
Arcade Sega Zaxxon NEC D780C-1 @ 3.1 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 2 MHz
2x Sega 93422 0.74 0 8 16 [33] [14] [7]
Computer NEC PC-9801,
NEC APC
NEC μPD8086 @ 5 MHz 2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 8087 @ 5 MHz
0.75 0.072 16 16 [34] [7] [2]
Fujitsu FM-11 EX Intel 8088 @ 8 MHz,
Fujitsu MBL 68B09E @ 2 MHz
Fujitsu MBL 68B09E @ 2 MHz 2.9 0 16 8 [7]
Arcade Sega VCO Object Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz,
8x Sega VCO
1.5 0 8 16 [24] [7]
Namco Pole Position Zilog Z8002 @ 3.1 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz
Zilog Z8002 @ 3.1 MHz 2.3 0.26 16 16 [35] [36] [7] [37]
1983 Computer Sega SC-3000 NEC 780C @ 3.6 MHz TI TMS9928A 0.53 0 8 8 [7]
Console Sega SG-1000
Nintendo Famicom,
Nintendo Entertainment System
Ricoh 2A03 @ 1.8 MHz Ricoh PPU (Picture Processing Unit) 0.78 0 8 8 [38] [7] [39]
Arcade Konami 6809,
Konami Z80
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.1 MHz
Motorola 6809 @ 2.1 MHz 1.9 0 8 8 [40] [7]
Computer Fujitsu Micro 16s Intel 8086 @ 8 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Motorola 6809,
Motorola 6845
2.2 0 16 8 [163]
Arcade Sega Zaxxon (Congo Bongo) NEC D780C-1 @ 3.1 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
2x Sega 93422 1.1 0 8 16 [33] [14] [7]
Computer NEC PC-9801 E,
NEC APC III
Intel 8086-2 @ 8 MHz 2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 8087 @ 8 MHz
1.2 0.12 16 16 [34] [7] [2] [41]
Arcade Nintendo Punch-Out 2x Ricoh N2A03 @ 1.8 MHz,
Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz
Nintendo CHP1-VIDEO 1.6 0 8 16 [38] [7]
Tatsumi TX-1 Intel 8086 @ 5 MHz
Zilog Z80 @ 3.8 MHz
Intel 8086 @ 5 MHz 2.1 0 16 16 [164] [165]
Namco System 16 2x Motorola 6809 @ 1.6 MHz Motorola 68000 @ 6.2 MHz 2.5 0 16 16 [42] [7]
1984 Computer IBM PC/AT Intel 80286 @ 6 MHz IBM EGA 1.3 0 16 4 [43] [2]
Amstrad CPC Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz Motorola MC6845 0.58 0 8 8 [7]
Apple Macintosh 128K Motorola 68000 @ 8 MHz Apple DMA Video Controller 1.4 0 16 8 [7]
Epson QX-16 Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz,
Intel 8088 @ 5.3 MHz
NEC µPD7220,
APX-IGGS Video Board
1.4 0 16 16 [44] [7]
Arcade Alpha Denshi Equites Motorola 68000 @ 6 MHz,
Intel 8085 @ 5 MHz
Alpha Denshi ALPHA-8303 3 0 16 16 [45] [2] [7]
Konami Dual 6809 Motorola 6809 @ 1.4 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Motorola 6809 @ 1.4 MHz 3.4 0 8 8 [46] [7]
1985 Computer IBM PC/AT Intel 80286 @ 8 MHz IBM EGA 1.8 0 16 4 [43] [2]
Console Sega Master System NEC 780C @ 3.6 MHz Sega 315-5124 VDP 0.53 0 8 8 [7] [47]
Computer MSX2 Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz Yamaha V9938 0.54 0 8 8 [7] [48]
Commodore 128 MOS Technology 8502 @ 2 MHz,
Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz
MOS Technology VIC-II 1.4 0 8 8 [7]
Arcade Sega System E NEC 780C @ 8 MHz 2x Sega 315-5124 VDP 1.2 0 8 16 [49] [7] [47]
Computer Commodore Amiga 1000 Motorola 68000 @ 7.16 MHz Commodore OCS 1.3 0 16 16 [7]
Arcade SNK Triple Z80 2x Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz 1.8 0 8 8 [50] [7]
Sega Hang-On Motorola 68000 @ 6.3 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Sega Super Scaler,
Motorola 68000 @ 6.3 MHz
3 0 16 16 [51] [7]
Computer NEC PC-9801 VM NEC V30 @ 10 MHz 2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 8087 @ 10 MHz
4.3 0.15 16 16 [34] [52] [2]
Arcade Sega Space Harrier Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 5 MHz
Sega Super Scaler,
Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz
4.4 0 16 16 [53] [7]
1986 Console Atari 7800 MOS Technology 6502C @ 1.79 MHz N/A 0.76 0 8 0 [7]
Computer Tandy TRS-80 Color Computer 3 Hitachi 6309 @ 1.8 MHz N/A 0.99 0 16 0 [7] [54]
Arcade Konami Dual 68000 Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Konami K051316,
Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz
4.2 0 16 16
Computer NEC PC-9801 VX,
NEC PC-98XL
Intel 80286 @ 10 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 80287 @ 10 MHz
5.3 0.25 16 16 [34] [52] [2] [55]
Arcade Sega Out Run Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Sega Super Scaler,
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz
5.4 0 16 16 [56] [7]
Taito Air System Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz 5.8 0 16 16 [57]
1987 Computer IBM PC PS/2 Intel 80286 @ 8 MHz N/A 1.8 0 16 0 [43] [2]
Commodore Amiga 2000 Motorola 68000 @ 7.16 MHz Commodore OCS 1.3 0 16 16 [7]
Apple Macintosh II Motorola 68020 @ 16 MHz Apple DMA Video Controller 2.5 0 32 8 [58]
Console NEC PC Engine,
TurboGrafx-16
Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270A
3.1 0 8 16 [59] [7]
Computer Sharp X68000 Hitachi HD68HC000 @ 10 MHz Sharp CYNTHIA Jr,
Sharp VSOP,
Sharp RESERVE
1.8 0 16 16 [7]
Sharp-NEC X1 Twin Sharp Z80 A @ 4 MHz,
Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz
Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270A
3.7 0 8 16 [29] [59] [7]
NEC PC-88 VA NEC V50 (µPD9002) @ 8 MHz NEC SGP,
NEC V3,
Intel 8087 @ 8 MHz
4 0.12 16 16 [166]
Arcade Taito Z System Motorola 68000 @ 16 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Taito Video J1100139A K1100316A,
Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz
5.7 0 16 16 [167] [168]
Sega X Board Hitachi FD1094 @ 13 MHz,
Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz
Sega Super Scaler,
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz
5.4 0 16 32 [60] [7]
Namco System 2 Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz,
Motorola 68B09 @ 3.1 MHz
Namco V56 VIDEO,
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz
6.2 0 16 32 [61] [62] [7]
Computer NEC PC-98XL²,
NEC PC-9801 UX
Intel i386DX @ 16 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 80387 @ 16 MHz
8.3 1.6 32 32 [63] [34] [2] [52] [64] [65] [55]
Arcade Taito/Technos Double Dragon Hitachi 6309 @ 12 MHz Hitachi 6309 @ 3.6 MHz 8.6 0 16 16 [54] [66] [7]
Taito Air System Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 25 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz
23 0 16 32 [57]
1988 Computer IBM PC PS/2 70 Intel 80386 DX @ 16 MHz N/A 2 0 32 0 [2]
PC Brand 386/25 Intel 386DX @ 25 MHz N/A 4.3 0.45 32 0 [58] [65]
Panasonic MSX2+ Zilog Z80 @ 5.4 MHz Yamaha V9958 0.81 0 8 8 [7] [67]
Console NEC PC Engine CD-ROM²,
TurboGrafx-CD
Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270A
3.1 0 8 16 [59] [7]
Sega Mega Drive,
Sega Genesis
Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Yamaha YM7101 VDP 2 0 16 16 [7]
Arcade Capcom CP System Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Capcom CPS-A,
Capcom CPS-B
2.3
Sega Mega-Tech Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Yamaha YM7101 VDP,
Sega 315-5124 VDP
2.6 0 16 16 [68] [7]
Data East HuC6280 2x Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270
6.2 0 8 16 [69] [59] [7]
Computer NEC PC-9801 RA Intel i386DX @ 16 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 80387 @ 16 MHz
8.3 1.6 32 32 [70] [34] [2] [52] [64] [65] [55]
Arcade Sega Y Board 2x Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
Sega Super Scaler,
Motorola 68000 @ 13 MHz
8.4 0 16 32 [71] [7]
Namco System 21 Motorola 68020 @ 13 MHz,
Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 13 MHz,
Motorola 68B09 @ 3.1 MHz
5x Texas Instruments TMS320C20 @ 25 MHz,
Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 13 MHz
74 0.11 32 32 [72] [73] [7]
1989 Computer IBM PC PS/2 55 SX Intel 80386 DX @ 20 MHz N/A 2.5 0 32 0 [2]
Console NEC PC Engine SuperGrafx Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz Hudson Soft HuC6260,
2x Hudson Soft HuC6270A
3.1 0 8 16 [59] [7]
Computer Fujitsu FM Towns Intel i386DX @ 16 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel 80387 @ 16 MHz
5.6 1.6 32 32 [55] [64] [65] [2]
Sharp X68000 HD (Concerto) Hitachi HD68HC000 @ 10 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY
5.8 0 16 16 [74] [52] [7]
NEC PC-98RL Intel 80386 @ 20 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel 80387 @ 20 MHz
12 2 32 32 [75] [34] [2] [52] [64] [55]
Arcade Atari Hard Drivin' Motorola 68010 @ 8 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7 MHz,
TI TMS32010 @ 20 MHz
2x TMS34010 @ 50 MHz,
TMS34010 @ 48 MHz,
ADSP-2100 @ 8 MHz
28 0 16 32 [169] [170] [171] [172] [173]
Namco System 21B 2x Motorola 68020 @ 12.3 MHz,
2x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz,
2x Motorola 68B09 @ 3.1 MHz
8x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 25 MHz,
2x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz
148 0.2 32 32 [72] [7] [76] [73]
1990 Computer Amstrad CPC Plus Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz Motorola MC6845,
Amstrad ASIC
0.58 0 8 16 [7]
Console Amstrad GX4000
Handheld NEC PC Engine GT,
TurboExpress
Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270A
3.1 0 8 16 [59] [7]
Console Nintendo Super Famicom,
Super Nintendo Entertainment System
Ricoh 5A22 @ 3.58 MHz Ricoh 5C77 (PPU1),
Ricoh 5C78 (PPU2)
1.8 0 16 16 [77] [7]
Computer Panasonic MSX TurboR ASCII/Mitsui R800 @ 7.2 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Yamaha V9958 5 0 16 8 [7] [67]
Commodore Amiga 3000 Motorola 68030 @ 16 MHz Commodore Amiga ECS,
Motorola 68881 @ 16 MHz
5.7 0.16 32 32 [78]
Sharp X68000 II HD (Concerto) Hitachi HD68HC000 @ 15 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY,
AMD Banchu
6.7 0.2 16 16 [74] [52] [7]
Console SNK Neo Geo Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
SNK PRO,
SNK LSPC2,
SNK NEO
2.7 0 16 32 [7] [79]
Arcade
Computer IBM PC PS/2 XP 486 Intel 80486 @ 16 MHz Intel 80486 FPU @ 16 MHz 7.3 0.96 32 32 [2] [80]
Arcade Sega System 32 NEC V60 @ 17 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 8.1 MHz
Sega Super Scaler 9.7 0 32 32 [81] [52] [7] [82]
Computer NEC PC-H98 Model 100/U100 Intel i486DX @ 25 MHz 2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel i486DX FPU @ 25 MHz
12 1.5 32 32 [83] [34] [2] [52] [64] [55] [84] [80]
Arcade Namco System 21C
(Galaxian 3)
Motorola 68020 @ 25 MHz,
10x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz
8x Motorola 68020 @ 25 MHz,
80x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 40 MHz
2139 1.8 32 32 [72] [7] [73] [76] [85]
1991 Console Commodore CDTV Motorola 68000 @ 7.16 MHz Commodore Amiga ECS 1.3 0 16 16 [7]
Sony/Philips CD-i Philips 68070 @ 15.5 MHz Philips SCC66470 2.7
Sega CD,
Mega-CD
Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7.67 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 Mhz
Sega Custom ASIC,
Yamaha YM7101 VDP
4.2
Computer Apple Macintosh SE30 Motorola 68030 @ 16 MHz Motorola 68882 @ 25 MHz 5.8 0.26 32 32 [7] [78]
Sharp X68000 XVI HD (Concerto) Hitachi HD68HC000 @ 16 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY,
Sharp CZ-6BP @ 25 MHz
6.9 0.24 16 32 [74] [52] [7]
Commodore Amiga 3000 Motorola 68030 @ 25 MHz Commodore Amiga ECS,
Motorola 68882 @ 25 MHz
9 0.26 32 32 [78] [86]
Arcade Irem M-92 NEC V33 @ 9 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 7.2 MHz
Nanao GA21 & GA22 13 0 32 32 [52] [87]
Computer IBM PC PS/2 70 Intel 80486 @ 33 MHz Intel 80486 FPU @ 33 MHz 15 1.9 32 32 [84] [2] [80]
NEC PC-H98 Intel i486DX @ 33 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
2x NEC µPD7220,
Intel i486DX FPU @ 33 MHz
19 2 32 32 [83] [34] [2] [52] [64] [55] [84] [80]
Arcade Sega System 32
(F1 Exhaust Note)
2x NEC V60 @ 17 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 8.1 MHz
2x Sega Super Scaler 20 0 32 32 [81] [52] [7]
Namco System 21C
(Winning Run '91)
2x Motorola 68020 @ 12.3 MHz,
2x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz,
2x Motorola 68B09 @ 3.1 MHz
10x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 25 MHz,
2x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz
180 0.2 32 32 [72] [7] [76] [73]
1992 Computer Atari Falcon Motorola 68030 @ 16 MHz Motorola 56000 DSP @ 32 MHz 21 0 32 24
Arcade Sega System Multi 32 NEC V70 @ 20 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 8.1 MHz
Sega Super Scaler 17 0 32 32 [88] [81] [74] [7]
Computer Fujitsu FM Towns II Intel i486SX @ 20 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel i486SX FPU @ 66 MHz
20 1.3 32 32 [55] [65] [89] [2]
Commodore Amiga 4000 Motorola 68040 @ 25 MHz Commodore Amiga AGA 28 3.5 32 32 [78]
Gateway 486DX2/66 Intel 486DX2 @ 66 MHz Intel 486DX2 FPU @ 66 MHz 30 3.9 32 32 [84] [80]
Sharp X68030 (VDTK) Motorola 68030 @ 50 MHz,
NEC V70 @ 20 MHz
Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY,
Motorola 68882 @ 50 MHz
33 0.53 32 32 [78] [74]
Arcade Namco System 21C
(Theatre 6: Project Dragoon)
Motorola 68020 @ 25 MHz,
5x Hitachi/Toshiba 68HC000 @ 12.3 MHz
Motorola 68020 @ 25 MHz,
10x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 40 MHz
282 0.4 32 32 [72] [7] [73] [76] [85] [90]
Sega Model 1 NEC V60 @ 16 MHz,
Toshiba TMP68000N @ 12 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
5x Fujitsu TGP MB86233 @ 20 MHz 112 80 32 64 [91] [92] [52] [7]
Sega Model 1
(Virtua Formula)
2x NEC V60 @ 16 MHz,
2x Toshiba TMP68000N @ 12 MHz,
2x Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz
10x Fujitsu TGP MB86233 @ 20 MHz 224 160 32 64 [91] [92] [7]
1993 Arcade Capcom CP System II Motorola 68000 @ 16 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 8 MHz
Capcom CPS-A,
Capcom CPS-B
4 0 16 16 [7]
Console Commodore Amiga CD32 Motorola 68EC020 @ 14.32 MHz Commodore Amiga AGA,
Commodore Akiko
4.4 0.11 32 32 [7] [73]
Nintendo Super Famicom,
Super Nintendo Entertainment System

(Super FX)
Ricoh 5A22 @ 3.58 MHz Ricoh 5C77 (PPU1),
Ricoh 5C78 (PPU2),
Super FX GSU-1,
Super FX GSU-2
4.8 0 16 16 [77] [7] [93]
Pioneer LaserActive Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7.67 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 Mhz,
Hudson Soft HuC6280 @ 7.2 MHz
Sega Custom ASIC,
Yamaha YM7101 VDP,
Hudson Soft HuC6260,
Hudson Soft HuC6270A
7.3 0 16 16 [7]
Fujitsu FM Towns Marty AMD 386SX @ 16 MHz Fujitsu Custom 5.6 0.29 32 32 [55] [2] [65]
Arcade Data East DECO 156 Data East DE156 @ 28 MHz Data East DECO Tilemap,
Data East DECO Sprite
28 0 32 32 [94] [95]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel 486DX2 @ 66 MHz Intel 486DX2 FPU @ 66 MHz 30 3.9 32 32 [84] [80]
Console Atari Jaguar Atari Jerry @ 26.6 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 13.295 MHz
Atari Tom @ 25.591 MHz 56 0 32 64
Panasonic 3DO Interactive Multiplayer ARM60 @ 13 MHz,
ARM FPA)
Panasonic Custom Math 11 4 32 32 [95] [174]
Computer NEC PC-9821 Af,
NEC SV-H98 Model 50f
Intel Pentium @ 66 MHz NEC EGC 133 2.3 32 32 [96] [52] [7] [97]
Fujitsu FM Towns II MX Intel i486DX @ 66 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel i486DX FPU @ 66 MHz
66 4 32 32 [55] [65] [89] [2]
Sharp X68040 (VDTK) Motorola 68040 @ 40 MHz Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY,
NEC V70 @ 20 MHz
59 5.6 32 32 [74] [98]
Arcade Namco System 22 Motorola 68EC020 @ 25 MHz,
2x Mitsubishi M37702 @ 16.4 MHz
Evans & Sutherland TR3,
2x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 50 MHz
88 402 32 64 [99] [100] [73] [76] [7]
Sega Model 2 Intel i960-KB @ 25 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz
2x Fujitsu MB86934 @ 50 MHz 180 130 32 64 [101] [92] [7]
Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator 24x MIPS R4400SC @ 150 MHz SGI Onyx RealityEngine2, 12x Intel i860XP @ 50 MHz 3384 1728 64 64 [175] [176] [177] [178]
1994 Console Sega Mega Drive,
Sega Genesis

(SVP)
Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Yamaha YM7101 VDP,
Samsung SSP1601 DSP @ 23 MHz
27 0 16 32 [7] [93]
NEC PC-FX NEC V810 @ 22 MHz 2x Hudson Soft HuC6270 20 0 32 16 [102] [179]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium @ 60 MHz N/A 121 2.1 32 0 [97]
Commodore Amiga 4000T Motorola 68040 @ 25 MHz Commodore Amiga AGA 28 3.5 32 32 [98]
Console Sega 32X Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Yamaha YM7101 VDP
50 0 32 32 [103]
Sega CD 32X,
Mega-CD 32X
Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Sega Custom ASIC,
Yamaha YM7101 VDP
53 0 32 32 [7] [103]
Sega CD 32X,
Mega-CD 32X

(SVP)
Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz,
Motorola 68000 @ 7.7 MHz,
Zilog Z80 @ 3.6 MHz
Hitachi SH-2 @ 24 MHz,
Sega Custom ASIC,
Yamaha YM7101 VDP,
Samsung SSP1601 @ 23 MHz
78 0 32 32 [7] [103] [93]
Sega Saturn 2x Hitachi SH-2 @ 29 MHz,
Hitachi SH-1 @ 20 MHz,
Motorola 68EC000 @ 12 MHz
Sega VDP1 @ 28.7 MHz,
Sega VDP2 @ 28.7 MHz
80 0 32 32 [103]
Computer Apple Power Macintosh 7100/66 IBM/Motorola PowerPC 601 @ 66 MHz Motorola 68882 100 8.2 32 32 [89]
Fujitsu FM Towns II HB Intel Pentium @ 66 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel 80387 @ 60 MHz,
CirrusLogic CL-GD5434
133 11 32 32 [104] [97] [105] [55] [65] [2]
Sharp X68060 (VDTK) Motorola 68060 @ 80 MHz Sharp CYNTHIA,
Sharp VIPS,
Sharp CATHY,
NEC V70 @ 20 MHz
133 44 32 32 [74]
Console Sony PlayStation IDT/MIPS R3051 @ 34 MHz Sony Geometry Transformation Engine,
Sony MDEC
176 0 32 32 [180] [181]
Arcade Namco Super System 22 Motorola 68EC020 @ 25 MHz,
2x Mitsubishi M37716 @ 16.4 MHz
Evans & Sutherland TR3,
2x Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 50 MHz,
Namco PDP
88 450 32 64 [106] [99] [107] [73] [76] [7]
Sega Model 2A-CRX 3x Intel i960-KB @ 25 MHz,
3x Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz
5x Fujitsu MB86934 @ 50 MHz 335 340 32 64 [101] [92] [7] [108]
1995 Console Nintendo Super Famicom,
Super Nintendo Entertainment System

(Super FX 2)
Ricoh 5A22 @ 3.58 MHz Ricoh 5C77 (PPU1),
Ricoh 5C78 (PPU2),
Super FX 2
23 0 16 16 [109] [77] [7] [93]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium @ 133 MHz Intel 80387 @ 133 MHz 252 21 32 32 [110] [97] [105] [65] [2]
Commodore Amiga 4000T Motorola 68060 @ 50 MHz Commodore Amiga AGA 74 27 32 32
Console Apple Bandai Pippin IBM/Motorola PowerPC 603 @ 66 MHz N/A 93 66 32 0 [111]
Computer Fujitsu FMV-Towns Intel Pentium @ 133 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel 80387 @ 133 MHz
252 21 32 32 [112] [110] [97] [105] [55] [65] [2]
NEC PC-9821
(PC-FXGA)
Intel Pentium @ 133 MHz,
NEC V30 @ 8 MHz
NEC EGC,
NEC V810 @ 22 MHz,
Hudson HuC6273,
Cyrix CX-83S87 @ 33 MHz
276 127 32 32 [102] [52] [7] [97]
Arcade Sega Model 2B-CRX 2x Intel i960-KB @ 25 MHz,
2x Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz
4x SHARC ADSP-2106 @ 40 MHz 318 540 32 64 [101] [92] [7] [113]
1996 Computer Acorn Network Computer ARM 7500FE @ 40 MHz N/A 35.9 6 32 0 [182]
Arcade Capcom CP System III Hitachi SH-2 @ 65 MHz Capcom DL-2729 PPU SD10-505,
Toshiba DL-2829 CCU SD07-1514
64 0 32 32 [183]

[103]

Computer Fujitsu FMV-Towns H20 Intel Pentium @ 200 MHz Fujitsu Custom,
Intel 80387
376 9.9 32 32 [112] [105] [110] [97] [55] [65] [2]
Console Nintendo 64 NEC VR4300 @ 93.75 MHz SGI RCP @ 62.5 MHz 126 200 64 64 [114] [115] [116]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium Pro @ 200 MHz NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR @ 60 MHz 419 250 32 64 [117] [118] [36]
NEC PC-9821R
(3DEngine)
2x Intel Pentium Pro @ 200 MHz NEC EGC,
NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR @ 60 MHz
839 300 32 64 [119] [117] [120] [118] [36]
Arcade Sega Model 2C-CRX 2x Intel i960-KB @ 25 MHz,
4x Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz
4x Fujitsu TGPx4 MB86235 (T&L) @ 40 MHz 644 540 32 64 [101] [92] [7] [121]
Sega Model 3 IBM/Motorola PowerPC 603 @ 100 MHz,
2x Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz
2x Real3D Pro-1000 305 1100 64 64 [122] [111]
1997 Computer Gateway G6-200 Intel Pentium Pro @ 200 MHz N/A 350 36 32 0 [184]
Apple Power Macintosh G3 IBM/Motorola PowerPC G3 @ 266 MHz ATI Rage Pro @ 75 MHz 844 260 32 64 [123] [124]
IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium II @ 300 MHz Fujitsu FXG-1 Pinolite (T&L) @ 100 MHz 844 296 32 64 [118] [36] [125]
NEC PC-9821R II
(3DEngine2)
2x Intel Pentium II @ 300 MHz NEC EGC,
NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR PCX2 @ 66 MHz
1088 320 32 64 [126] [120] [118] [36]
Arcade SNK Hyper Neo Geo 64 NEC VR4300 @ 100 MHz,
NEC V53 @ 16 MHz,
Kawasaki KL5C80A12CFP @ 12.5 MHz
SNK NEO64 141 100 64 64 [127] [114] [52] [7]
Konami-Panasonic M2 2x IBM/Motorola PowerPC 602 EMPPC602FB66 @ 66 MHz Panasonic BDA 132 133 64 64 [185] [186] [187]
Namco System 23 QED/MIPS R4650 @ 166 MHz Namco Custom Texture Mapped Polygons Hardware 217 570 64 64 [128] [99]
Sega Model 3 Step 2.0 IBM/Motorola PowerPC 603ev @ 166 MHz,
2x Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz
2x Real3D Pro-1000 503 1332 64 64 [122] [111] [129]
1998 Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel Celeron @ 333 MHz 3dfx Voodoo Banshee @ 100 MHz 1139 458 32 64 [130]
NEC PC-9821Ra333
(I-O Data GA-VDB16)
Intel Celeron @ 333 MHz NEC EGC,
3dfx Voodoo Banshee @ 100 MHz
1139 458 32 64 [131] [120] [130]
Arcade Konami NWK-TR IBM PowerPC 403 @ 33 MHz,
Motorola 68EC000 @ 16 MHz
4x 3dfx Voodoo @ 50 MHz,
SHARC ADSP-21062 DSP @ 40 MHz
69 320 64 64 [132] [7]
Namco Super System 23 GMEN QED/MIPS R4650 @ 166 MHz,
Hitachi SH-2 @ 29 MHz
Namco Custom Texture Mapped Polygons Hardware 246 570 64 64 [133] [128] [99] [103]
Sega Naomi Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
ARM7 @ 45 MHz
Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz
391 2800 128 128 [134] [95] [116] [135]
Console Sega Dreamcast
1999 Computer Zilog eZ80 Acclaim Zilog eZ80 at 50 MHz N/A 80 0 24 0
Arcade Namco Super System 23 Evolution 2 QED/MIPS R4650 @ 200 MHz,
Hitachi SH-2 @ 29 MHz
Namco Custom Texture Mapped Polygons Hardware 291 590 64 64 [136] [128] [99] [103]
Computer Apple Power Macintosh G4 Apple/IBM/Motorola PowerPC G4 @ 450 MHz ATI Rage 128 Pro @ 125 MHz 856 1366 128 128 [137] [138] [124]
IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium III @ 500 MHz NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz 820 1497 32 128 [137] [116] [135]
NEC PC-9821Ra40 Intel Celeron @ 400 MHz NEC EGC,
NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz
1369 1634 32 128 [131] [120] [130] [135]
Arcade Sega Hikaru 2x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
2x ARM7 @ 45 MHz
2x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
Sega Custom 3D Graphic Engine
782 8000 128 128 [139] [134] [116]
Sega Naomi Multiboard 4x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
4x ARM7 @ 45 MHz
4x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
4x NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz
1564 11200 128 128 [140] [134] [116] [135]
2000 Computer Apple Power Macintosh G4 2x Apple/IBM/Motorola PowerPC G4 @ 500 MHz ATI Radeon 7200 (DDR) @ 366 MHz 1903 2823 32 128 [137] [141]
Arcade Konami Viper Motorola PowerPC XPC8240 @ 250 MHz 3dfx Voodoo3 Avenger 3500 @ 183 MHz 750 3100 64 128 [142] [111]
Computer NEC PC-9821Ra43 Intel Celeron @ 767 MHz NEC EGC,
NVIDIA GeForce2 Pro @ 200 MHz
2622 6400 32 64 [143] [130] [144]
IBM-Compatible PC AMD Athlon @ 1.2 GHz NVIDIA GeForce2 Pro @ 200 MHz 3561 6400 32 128 [145] [144]
Console Sony PlayStation 2 Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine @ 300 MHz,
MIPS R3000A @ 38 MHz
Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine FPU @ 300 MHz,
Sony/Toshiba Graphics Synthesizer @ 147 MHz
1997 6200 128 128 [146] [116]
Arcade Sega Naomi 2 2x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
ARM7 @ 45 MHz
2x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
2x NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz,
VideoLogic Elan (T&L) @ 100 MHz
751 7500 128 128 [147] [134] [116] [135]
Sega Naomi Satellite Terminal 10x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
10x ARM7 @ 45 MHz
10x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
10x NEC PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz
3910 28000 128 128 [148] [134] [116] [135]
2001 Arcade Namco System 246 Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine @ 300 MHz,
MIPS R3000A @ 38 MHz
Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine FPU @ 300 MHz,
Sony/Toshiba Graphics Synthesizer @ 147 MHz
1997 6200 128 128 [146] [116]
Console Microsoft Xbox Intel Pentium III @ 733 MHz NVIDIA GeForce 3 XGPU @ 233 MHz 1203 7300 32 128 [137] [116]
Computer NEC PC-9821Ra43 Intel Celeron @ 1.2 GHz NEC EGC,
NVIDIA GeForce3 Ti 500 @ 240 MHz
4103 10000 32 128 [143] [130] [144]
IBM-Compatible PC AMD Athlon XP 1900+ @ 1.6 GHz NVIDIA GeForce3 Ti 500 @ 240 MHz 4748 10000 32 128 [145] [144]
Console Nintendo GameCube,
Panasonic Q
Nintendo/IBM PowerPC 750CXe (PowerPC G3) "Gekko" @ 486 MHz Nintendo/ArtX Flipper @ 162 MHz 1596 11000 64 128 [149] [124] [150]
Arcade Sega Naomi 2 GD-ROM 2x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
ARM7 @ 45 MHz
2x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
2x NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz,
VideoLogic Elan (T&L) @ 100 MHz
751 7500 128 128 [147] [134] [116] [135]
Sega Naomi Multiboard 16x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
16x ARM7 @ 45 MHz
16x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
16x NEC PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz
6256 44800 128 128 [140] [134] [116] [135]
2002 Arcade Konami Pyson Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine @ 300 MHz,
MIPS R3000A @ 38 MHz
Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine FPU @ 300 MHz,
Sony/Toshiba Graphics Synthesizer @ 147 MHz
1997 6200 128 128 [188] [146] [116]
Computer NEC PC-9821Ra43 Intel Celeron @ 1.4 GHz NEC EGC,
ATI Radeon 9000 Pro @ 275 MHz
4786 12322 32 128 [143] [130] [141]
Arcade Nintendo / Namco / Sega Triforce Nintendo/IBM PowerPC 750CXe "Gekko" Nintendo/ArtX Flipper 2250 22000 64 128 [189] [149]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC AMD Athlon XP 2400+ @ 2 GHz ATI Radeon 9700 Pro @ 325 MHz 5935 34000 32 256 [145] [141]
Arcade Konami Viper Satellite Terminal 14x Motorola PowerPC XPC8240 @ 250 MHz 14x 3dfx Voodoo3 Avenger 3500 @ 183 MHz 10500 43400 64 128 [190] [142] [111]
Namco-Sega Naomi 2 2x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
ARM7 @ 45 MHz
2x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
2x NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz,
VideoLogic Elan (T&L) @ 100 MHz,
16x Namco Custom GPU Card
751 29900 128 128 [140] [134] [116] [135] [147] [151]
Sega Naomi 2 Satellite Terminal 20x Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz,
10x ARM7 @ 45 MHz
20x Hitachi SH-4 FPU @ 200 MHz,
20x NEC/VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz,
10x VideoLogic Elan (T&L) @ 100 MHz
7510 75000 128 128 [191] [147] [134] [116] [135]
2003 Arcade Sega Chihiro Satellite Terminal 5x Intel Pentium III @ 733 MHz 5x NVIDIA GeForce 3 XGPU @ 233 MHz 6015 36500 32 128 [192] [193] [137] [116]
Computer IBM-Compatible PC Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition @ 3.2 GHz ATI Radeon 9800 Pro @ 380 MHz 9726 41676 32 256 [145] [141]
Arcade Konami Pyson Satellite Terminal 9x Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine @ 300 MHz,
9x MIPS R3000A @ 38 MHz
9x Sony/Toshiba Emotion Engine FPU @ 300 MHz,
9x Sony/Toshiba Graphics Synthesizer @ 147 MHz
17973 55800 128 128 [194] [146] [116]
Namco System N2 Satellite Terminal 10x AMD Athlon XP 3200+ @ 2.333 GHz 10x NVIDIA GeForce FX 5950 Ultra @ 475 MHz 93500 326100 32 256 [195] [144]
2004 Computer PC AMD Athlon 64 4000+ @ 3.2 GHz ATI Radeon X800 XT Platinum Edition @ 520 MHz 12052 102112 64 256 [141] [152]
Arcade Taito Type X Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition @ 3.2 GHz ATI Radeon X800 XT Platinum Edition @ 520 MHz 9726 105051 64 256 [196] [153] [141]
2005 Mobile SOC TSMC ARM Cortex A8 @ 1 GHz N/A 2000 39 128 0 [197]
Computer PC AMD Athlon 64 FX-57 @ 2.8 GHz N/A 12000 1640 64 0 [154]
Console Microsoft Xbox 360 IBM PowerPC "Xenon" (Triple Core) @ 3.2 GHz ATI R500 "Xenos" @ 500 MHz 19200 240000 64 128 [116] [155]
Arcade Sega Lindbergh Intel Pentium 4 HT @ 3 GHz NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra Extreme @ 450 MHz 9119 103039 64 256 [198] [153] [144]
Taito Type X+ Intel Pentium 4 Extreme Edition @ 3.2 GHz NVIDIA GeForce 7800 GTX 512 @ 550 MHz 9726 262051 64 256 [199] [153] [141]
Computer PC AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual Core) @ 2 GHz NVIDIA GeForce 7800 GTX 512 @ 550 MHz 14564 267701 64 256[154] [144]
2006 Computer PC AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual Core) @ 2.6 GHz N/A 18938 7842 64 0 [200]
Intel Core 2 X6800 (Quad Core) @ 2.93 GHz N/A 27079 46880 64 0 [145] [141]
Console Nintendo Wii Nintendo/IBM PowerPC 750CL "Broadway" @ 729 MHz ATI Hollywood @ 243 MHz,
ARM926 Starlet @ 243 MHz
3081 62900 64 128 [156] [95] [116]
Arcade Taito Type X² Intel Core 2 Extreme QX6700 (Quad Core) @ 2.66 GHz ATI Radeon X1950 XTX @ 650 MHz 49161 387000 64 256 [157] [141]
Computer PC
Console Sony PlayStation 3 Sony/Toshiba Cell BE (Nine Core) @ 3.2 GHz Sony/NVIDIA RSX Reality Synthesizer @ 550 MHz 35840 459200 128 256 [116] [158]
2007 Arcade Namco System 357
Sega Lindbergh Satellite Terminal 5x Intel Pentium 4 HT @ 3 GHz 5x NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra Extreme @ 450 MHz 45595 515195 64 256 [201] [153]
Taito Type X² Satellite Terminal Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9650 (Quad Core) @ 3 GHz NVIDIA GeForce 8800 Ultra @ 612 MHz 64240 672000 64 384 [157] [144] [159]
Computer PC
2008 Arcade Sega Europa-R Intel Pentium D @ 3.4 GHz GeForce 8800 Ultra @ 612 MHz 38256 621364 64 384 [202] [203] [144]
Taito Type X² Satellite Terminal Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (Quad Core) @ 3.2 GHz NVIDIA GeForce 9800 GX2 @ 600 MHz 68500 1226366 64 256 [157] [141] [159]
Computer PC
2009 Arcade Taito Type X² Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (Quad Core) @ 3.2 GHz ATI Radeon HD 4870 X2 @ 750 MHz 68500 2502400 64 256 [157] [141] [159]
Computer PC Intel Core i7-980X (Quad Core) @ 3.33 GHz ATI Radeon HD 4870 X2 @ 750 MHz 126800 2526800 64 256 [157] [141] [160]
2010 Computer PC Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X (Hex Core) @ 3.33 GHz AMD Radeon 6970 @ 880 MHz 147600 2703000 64 384 [157] [141] [161]
2011 Arcade Taito Type X² Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (Quad Core) @ 3.2 GHz NVIDIA GeForce GTX 590 @ 607 MHz 68500 2590700 64 384 [157] [144] [159]
Computer PC Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3960X (Hex Core) @ 3.3 GHz AMD Radeon 6990 @ 830 MHz 177730 5099000 64 256 [162] [163] [141]
2012 Console Nintendo Wii U Nintendo/IBM PowerPC 750 "Espresso" (Triple Core) @ 1.3 GHz AMD RV770 (Radeon 4670) "Latte" @ 550 MHz 15049 800987 64 256 [204] [156] [116]
Arcade Taito Type X³ Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3970X (Hex Core) @ 3.5 GHz AMD Radeon 6990 @ 830 MHz 188502 5099000 64 256 [162] [141]
2013 Console Microsoft Xbox One Octa-Core x64 CPU @ 1.6 GHz AMD Radeon 7850 @ 860 MHz 100000 1228800 64 128 [205] [206] [141] [116]
Arcade Sega Nu Intel i3 3220 @ 3.3 GHz NVIDIA GeForce GTX650 Ti Boost @ 980 MHz 132700 1589000 64 192 [207] [208] [209] [144]
Computer PC Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3970X (Hex Core) @ 3.5 GHz NVIDIA GeForce GTX Titan @ 837 MHz 188502 4692000 64 384 [162] [144]
Console Sony PlayStation 4 Sony/AMD Radeon GCN 2.0 (Octa-Core) Jaguar APU Sony/AMD Radeon GCN 2.0 (Radeon R9) Jaguar APU 200000 1843200 256 256 [210]

[211] [116]

References

  1. http://technologizer.com/2011/11/15/intel-4004/2/
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 Intel Processors, Chihuahua Institute of Technology
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sord SMP80/x series, IPSJ Computer Museum
  4. [1] [2]
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Intel 8048, which performs at 0.066 MIPS per MHz, was based on the Fairchild F8
  6. [3] [4]
  7. 7.000 7.001 7.002 7.003 7.004 7.005 7.006 7.007 7.008 7.009 7.010 7.011 7.012 7.013 7.014 7.015 7.016 7.017 7.018 7.019 7.020 7.021 7.022 7.023 7.024 7.025 7.026 7.027 7.028 7.029 7.030 7.031 7.032 7.033 7.034 7.035 7.036 7.037 7.038 7.039 7.040 7.041 7.042 7.043 7.044 7.045 7.046 7.047 7.048 7.049 7.050 7.051 7.052 7.053 7.054 7.055 7.056 7.057 7.058 7.059 7.060 7.061 7.062 7.063 7.064 7.065 7.066 7.067 7.068 7.069 7.070 7.071 7.072 7.073 7.074 7.075 7.076 7.077 7.078 7.079 7.080 7.081 7.082 7.083 7.084 7.085 7.086 7.087 7.088 7.089 7.090 7.091 7.092 7.093 7.094 7.095 7.096 7.097 7.098 7.099 7.100 7.101 7.102 7.103 7.104 7.105 7.106 7.107 7.108 7.109 7.110 7.111 Obsolete Microprocessors, RetroComputing
  8. http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1%20&c=405
  9. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=628&gid=1478
  10. MOS Technology 6507 is based on MOS Technology 6502
  11. 【Sord】 M200 Smart Home Computer Series
  12. [5] [6] [7]
  13. Lowell Turner, "General Instruments CP1600", 10 July 2001
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 NEC µPD780C is based on the Zilog Z80
  15. [8] [9] [10]
  16. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=733
  17. http://121ware.com/support/product/data/spec/cpu/b368-1.html
  18. [11] [12]
  19. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=913
  20. http://mamedev.org/source/src/mame/drivers/decocass.c.html
  21. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=628&gid=1478#1478
  22. [13] [14] [15] [16]
  23. http://www.games-db.com/Game/200303082/
  24. 24.0 24.1 [17]
  25. http://web.archive.org/web/20120219195401/http://www.cityofberwyn.com/simulation/gameHardware/G80ref1.20.txt
  26. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=516
  27. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=628&page=1#1469
  28. MOS Technology 6510 is based on MOS Technology 6502
  29. 29.0 29.1 Sharp X1, Old Computers
  30. [18] [19] [20]
  31. http://museum.ipsj.or.jp/en/computer/personal/0098.html
  32. http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?c=362
  33. 33.0 33.1 [21] [22] [23]
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 NEC PC-9801 retro references:
  35. [24] [25]
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 [26] [27]
  37. http://www.easy68k.com/paulrsm/dg/dg27.htm
  38. 38.0 38.1 Ricoh 2A03 is based on MOS Technology 6502
  39. http://www.beyond3d.com/content/articles/118/2
  40. [28] [29]
  41. http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=996
  42. [30] [31] [32]
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Intel 80286 Microprocessor Chip, Computer Museum
  44. http://manx.classiccmp.org/mirror/harte/Epson/QX-16%20Tech%20Manual.pdf
  45. [33] [34] [35]
  46. [36] [37]
  47. 47.0 47.1 http://github.com/franckverrot/EmulationResources/blob/master/consoles/sms-gg/Sega%20Master%20System%20VDP%20documentation.txt
  48. http://map.grauw.nl/resources/video/v9938/v9938.xhtml
  49. [38] [39]
  50. http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=885
  51. http://mamedev.org/source/src/mame/drivers/segahang.c.html
  52. 52.00 52.01 52.02 52.03 52.04 52.05 52.06 52.07 52.08 52.09 52.10 52.11 52.12 52.13 52.14 52.15 52.16 [40] [41]
  53. [42] [43]
  54. 54.0 54.1 Hitachi 6309 is based on the Motorola 6809. The 6309 added 16-bit & 32-bit features and is generally 30% faster than the 6809.
  55. 55.00 55.01 55.02 55.03 55.04 55.05 55.06 55.07 55.08 55.09 55.10 55.11 55.12 FM Towns references:
  56. http://system16.com/hardware.php?id=697
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