Ancient Magna Graecia was a complex of Greek cities-colonies on the coasts of Italy and Sicily, founded during the Greek Colonisation. They played an important role in the development of Etruscan and Roman cultures. In the 5th century BCE Magna Graecia was dominated by the city-state of Syracuse, a great centre of Greek culture. Other major urban centres included Taranto, Croton, Sybaris and Messana. Magna Graecia was gradually conquered by Rome, a conquest that was completed by 272 BC. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Southern Italy was temporarily part of the Byzantine Empire as the Catepanate of Italia. A Greek-speaking population has survived in these areas to modern times.

Initial government is Despotism.

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