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This is a list of firsts in gaming history, or list of gaming firsts, listing game concepts and genres by their first appearance. It includes board game firsts and electronic game firsts, the latter including video game firsts.

Board games

The following table lists board game concepts and genres by their first appearance.

Genre Game Year Origin
Boss Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Character
Player character
Critical hit Empire of the
Petal Throne
[1]
1974 Muhammad
Barker
[2]
Dungeon crawler Dungeons & Dragons 1974 Gary Gygax
Enemy Go c. 300 BCE China
Hack & slash Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Health Go c. 300 BCE China
Hit points Dungeons & Dragons 1974 Gary Gygax
Leveling up Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Linear game Senet c. 3100 BCE Egypt
Non-linear game Draughts c. 3000 BCE Iraq
Racing Senet c. 3100 BCE Egypt
Role-playing game (RPG) Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Open-world Go c. 300 BCE China
Overworld
RPG overworld Dungeons & Dragons 1974 Gary Gygax
Empire of the
Petal Throne
[1]
1974 Muhammad
Barker
[2]
Strategy Draughts c. 3000 BCE Iraq
Strategy role-playing game
(SRPG)
Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Strategy wargame Go c. 300 BCE China
Sandbox Draughts c. 3000 BCE Iraq
Tabletop role-playing game
(TRPG)
Dungeons & Dragons 1974 Gary Gygax
Empire of the
Petal Throne
[1]
1974 Muhammad
Barker
[2]
Tactical role-playing game
(TRPG)
Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Tactical wargame
Turn-based strategy (TBS) Draughts c. 3000 BCE Iraq
Turn-based tactics (TBT) Chess c. 400 CE Indian
subcontinent
Wargame Go c. 300 BCE China

Electronic games

This is a list of electronic game firsts, which includes a list of firsts in video game history, or list of video game firsts.

The electronic games listed include video games (arcade, computer and console games), computer games (mainframe and personal computer games), and arcade games (electro-mechanical and video games).

Concepts

The following lists concepts related to electronic games, by their first appearance. The list includes electronic games as well as related hardware.

Concept Title Year Developer
2D Computer Draughts 1952 Christopher Strachey
3D Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco [4]
(Kenzou Furukawa)[5]
3D (on-screen) Indy 500 [6][3] 1969
3D video game Road Race [7] 1976 SEGA
Fonz
3D computer graphics
software
3D Art Graphics [8][9] 1978 Kazumasa Mitazawa
3D texture mapping Turbo [10] 1981 SEGA
(Steve Hanawa)[11]
Buck Rogers:
Planet of Zoom
1982 SEGA
Stereoscopic 3D [12] SubRoc-3D 1982 SEGA
3D polygons Astron Belt 1982 SEGA
Pre-rendered 3D polygons
Real-time 3D polygons Plazma Line 1984 Technosoft
(Katsunori Yoshimura)[13]
I, Robot 1984 Atari
(Dave Theurer)
3D lighting Winning Run 1988 Namco
3D shading
Flat shading [14]
3D anti-aliasing Virtua Racing 1992 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
3D polygon texture mapping Sim Drive [15] 1992 Namco
Gouraud shading [16]
3D texture filtering Daytona USA 1993 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Autostereoscopic 3D [17] Floating Image
System
[18]
1997 SEGA AM3
(Hisao Oguchi)
[19]
Phong shading [20] Brave Firefighters [21] 1999 SEGA AM1
Space Channel 5 1999 United Game Artists
Active time battle (ATB) Final Fantasy IV 1991 Squaresoft
(Hironobu Sakaguchi,
Hiroyuki Ito)[22]
Arcade video game Computer Space 1971 Atari
(Nolan Bushnell)
Bloom lighting The Bouncer [23] 2000 Squaresoft
(Takashi Tokita,[24]
Hisahiko Takeuchi)[25]
Depth-of-field (DOF)[26]
Branching narrative Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii
Boss Balloon Gun [28][29] 1974 SEGA
Character Gun Fight [30] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Player character (PC)
Video game character Playtron [31][3] 1973 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Video game player character
Non-player character (NPC)
Sprite character
Human character Basketball [32] 1974 Taito
3D polygon character Virtua Racing 1992 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
3D polygon NPC
3D polygon player character Virtua Fighter 1993
Color Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Color (on-screen) Indy 500 [6][3] 1969
Color video game Playtron [31][3] 1973
Combo Flash Boy [33][34] 1981 Data East
Fighting game combo Shanghai Kid [35][36] 1985 Nihon Game
Beat 'em up combo Kunio-kun 1986 Technōs Japan
(Yoshihisa Kishimoto)[37]
Renegade
Combo system Street Fighter II 1991 Capcom
(Noritaka Funamizu)
Computer game Computer Chess 1951 Dietrich Prinz
Cover system Gun Fight [30] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Video game cover system Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Scrolling cover system Rolling Thunder 1986 Namco
3D cover system Cabal,
Devastators
1988 TAD Corporation,[38]
Konami
Third-person cover system
3D polygon cover system Time Crisis 1995 Namco
(Takashi Sano)
First-person cover system
3D polygon third-person
cover system
Metal Gear Solid 1998 Konami
(Hideo Kojima)
WinBack 1999 Koei
Cutscene Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
Video game cutscene Space Invaders
Part II
1979 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Deathmatch Last Survivor 1988 SEGA
Dialogue choices Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii
Difficulty levels Speed Race 1974 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Difficulty curve Space Invaders 1978
Digital circuit Switching Circuit
Theory
1934 NEC
(Akira Nakashima)
Electro-mechanical
arcade game
Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Enemy Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)
Video game enemy Balloon Gun [28] 1974 SEGA
Full-motion video (FMV) Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
FMV cutscene
FMV video game Astron Belt [41] 1982 SEGA
3D FMV game
FMV video game cutscene
Graphics card SEGA Vic Dual 1977 SEGA
Taito Z80 1977 Taito
Graphics processing unit
(GPU)
Fujitsu MB14241 1975 Fujitsu
GPU microprocessor NEC µPD7220 1982 NEC
Headshot Virtua Cop 1994 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Isometric perspective Zaxxon 1982 SEGA
Health Playtron [31] 1973 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Health meter Flash Boy [33][34] 1981 Data East
Health regeneration Punch-Out! 1983 Nintendo
(Genyo Takeda,
Shigeru Miyamoto)
Jump [42] Basketball [32] 1974 Taito
Platform jump Donkey Kong 1981 Nintendo
(Shigeru Miyamoto)
Linear game Tennis For Two 1958 William Higinbotham
Non-linear game Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Non-linear video game Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Microprocessor Intel 4004 1968 Sharp [44]
(Tadashi Sasaki)
Busicom
(Masatoshi Shima)
1969 Intel
(Marcian Hoff)
8-bit microprocessor Intel 8008 1972
Microcomputer SMP80/08 1972 Sord
(Takayohi Shiina)
8-bit microcomputer
General-purpose
microprocessor
Intel 8080 1974 Intel
(Masatoshi Shima,
Federico Faggin)
Microprocessor video game Gun Fight 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Midway
(Dave Nutting)
Demolition Derby 1975 Fairchild
(Gerald Lawson)
16-bit microprocessor Panafacom MN1610 1975 Panafacom
(Fujitsu,
Fuji Electric,
Matsushita)
Microprocessor console Fairchild Channel F 1976 Fairchild
(Gerald Lawson)
Home computer
(home microcomputer)
Apple II 1977 Apple
(Steve Jobs)

[45]

Sord M200 1977 Sord
(Toshiba)
16-bit microcomputer Panafacom Lkit-16 1977 Panafacom
(Fujitsu,
Fuji Electric,
Matsushita)
Moral decisions [46] Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii
Nobunaga's Ambition 1983 Koei
Multiple endings Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii
Nobunaga's Ambition 1983 Koei
Music Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Gun Fight
Continuous music Space Invaders 1978
Rally-X 1980 Namco
Online MUD1 1979 Roy Trubshaw,
Richard Bartle
Graphical online game Daiva Dr. Amandora,
Super Laydock [47]
1986 T&E Soft [48]
Open-world Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
3D open-world
Scrolling open-world
Overworld
Scrolling overworld
Open-world video game Western Gun,
Heiankyo Alien
1975,
1979
Taito (Nishikado),
University of Tokyo
Video game overworld
Scrolling open-world
video game
Rally-X 1980 Namco
Scrolling video game
overworld
RPG overworld Ultima 1981 Origin Systems
(Richard Garriott)
Fully-scaled open-world
video game
Courageous Perseus,
Hydlide
1984 Cosmos Computer,
T&E Soft (Naito)[49]
Pseudo-3D open-world
video game
Gingahyōryū Vifam,[50]
Elite
1984 Bandai,
David Braben
3D open-world video game Wibarm 1986 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Power-up Pac-Man 1980 Namco
(Toru Iwatani)
Quick-time event (QTE) Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
3D quick-time event [51] Die Hard Arcade 1996 SEGA
(Makoto Uchida)[52]
Shenmue 1999 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Ray casting [53] Last Survivor 1988 SEGA
Line of Fire 1989
ROM cartridge Fairchild Channel F 1976 Fairchild
(Gerald Lawson)
Score Duck Hunt [54] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
High score Space Invaders 1978 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Scrolling Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Side-scrolling Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)
Scrolling video game Speed Race 1974 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
2D scrolling
Vertical scrolling [55]
Side-scrolling video game Bomber [56][57][58] 1977 SEGA
Parallax scrolling [59] Scramble 1981 Konami
Sprite Playtron [31][3] 1973 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
2D sprite
Color sprite
Character sprite
Human sprite Basketball [32] 1974 Taito
Sprite scaling Road Race [7] 1976 SEGA
Fonz
Multi-color sprite Galaxian
(Namco Galaxian)
1979 Namco
Color sprite scaling Turbo [10] 1981 SEGA
(Steve Hanawa)
Tilemap background Galaxian
(Namco Galaxian)
1979 Namco
Transistor computer Manchester
Computer
1953 University of
Manchester
Stored-program
transistor computer
ETL Mark III 1954 Electrotechnical
Laboratory

(Japan)
Video game Computer Draughts 1952 Christopher Strachey
Video game console Magnavox Odyssey 1972 Magnavox
(Ralph Baer)
Video projection
arcade game
Indy 500 [6][3] 1969 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)

Controls

Concept Product Year Developer
Analog stick Sea Devil [60]
(Arcade)
1972 SEGA
Video game analog stick Balloon Gun [28]
(Arcade)
1974
Analog flightstick Space Harrier
(Sega Space Harrier)
1985 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Analog thumbstick XE-1 AP [61]
(Sega Mega Drive)
1989 Dempa,[62]
SEGA
D-pad Vanguard
(Arcade)
1981 Konami
Donkey Kong
(Game & Watch)[63][64]
1982 Nintendo
(Gunpei Yokoi)
Dance pad Power Pad
(NES)
1987 Bandai
Dual stick Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Gun Fight
Dual analog After Burner II
(Sega X Board)
1987 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Dual analog pad XE-1 AP [61]
(Sega Mega Drive)
1989 Dempa,[62]
SEGA
Dual thumbstick controller Dual Analog
(PlayStation)
1997 Sony
Joystick Missile [65]
(Arcade)
1969 SEGA
Video game joystick Astro Race [66]
(Arcade)
1973 Taito
Light gun Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
Light gun (on-screen) Duck Hunt [54] 1969 SEGA
Optical light gun Beam Gun 1971 Nintendo
(Gunpei Yokoi)
Video game light gun Shooting Gallery [67] 1972
Magnavox
(Ralph Baer)
Positional gun Sea Devil [60] 1972 SEGA
Video game positional gun Balloon Gun [28] 1974
Motion controls [68] Heavyweight Champ 1976
KO Punch [69] 1981
Pressure sensitive controls [70] KO Punch [69]
Full-body motion controls [68] KO Punch [69]
Hang-On 1985 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Full-body motion sensors [68] Sega Activator
[71][72][73]
1993 SEGA
(Assaf Gurner)[74]
Point & click interface Star Arthur Densetsu
[75]
1983 T&E Soft
Strafing Star Cruiser 1988 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Touchpad tablet Text Editing
System [76]
1971 Hitachi
(Hidekazu Terai,
Kazuo Nakata)
Video game
touchpad tablet
Sega Graphic Board [77]
(SG-1000)
1985 SEGA
Touchscreen tablet Touch Sensitive
Tablet [78]
1979 Hitachi
(Masao Hotta,
Yoshikazu Miyamoto)
Video game touchscreen Game Gear Successor Early
1990s
SEGA

Genres

The following table lists electronic game genres by their first appearance.

Genre Game Year Developer
Action Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Action video game Spacewar! 1962 Steve Russell
3D action Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)[79]
3D action (on-screen) Duck Hunt [54] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)[80]
3D action video game Road Race [7] 1976 SEGA
Fonz
Action-adventure Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
3D action-adventure
Action-adventure video game Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Action RPG (ARPG) Panorama Toh [81] 1983 Nihon Falcom
(Yoshio Kiya)[82]
3D action RPG Wibarm 1986 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Action RTS (ARTS) Bokosuka Wars,
Herzog Zwei [83]
1983,
1989
Koji Sumii,
Technosoft
Adventure game Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
3D adventure game
Adventure video game Colossal Cave
Adventure
1977 William Crowther,
Don Woods
3D polygon adventure game Alice:
An Interactive Museum
1991 Toshiba-EMI [84]
(Haruhiko Shono)[85]
3D real-time adventure game The Life Stage:
Virtual House
[86]
1993 Micro Cabin [87]
Adventure RPG Dragon & Princess [88] 1982 Koei
(Kou Shibusawa)
Basketball Basketball [32] 1974 Taito
Beat 'em up Samurai,[89][90]
Kung-Fu Master
1980,
1984
SEGA,
Data East
Boxing Heavyweight Champ 1976 SEGA
Computer RPG (CRPG) Pedit5 1975 Rusty Rutherford
Console RPG (CRPG) Dragon Quest 1986 Chunsoft
(Yuji Horii)
Endless runner Jump Bug 1981 Alpha Denshi
Eroge Night Life 1982 Koei
Dungeon crawler Pedit5 1975 Rusty Rutherford
Fighting Heavyweight Champ 1976 SEGA
2D fighting
Versus fighting
3D fighting Virtua Fighter 1993 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Flight simulator Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
First-person perspective shooter Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)
First-person perspective shooter
(on-screen)
Duck Hunt [54] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
First-person perspective shooter
video game
Balloon Gun [28] 1974 SEGA
First-person role-playing shooter
(RPS)
Star Cruiser 1988 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
First-person shooter (FPS) Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
First-person shooter video game Spasim 1975 Jim Bowery
3D first-person shooter Star Cruiser 1988 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
First-person tactical shooter Space Tactics [91] 1980 SEGA
FMV adventure game Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
Graphic adventure Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
Graphic adventure video game Mystery House [92] 1980 Sierra Entertainment
(Roberta Williams)[93]
Hack & slash Samurai [89] 1980 SEGA
3D hack & slash Getsu Fuuma Den [94] 1987 Konami
3D polygon hack & slash King's Field 1994 From Software
Interactive fiction Wild Gunman [39] 1974 Nintendo
Interactive movie
Interactive movie video game Astron Belt [41] 1982 SEGA
3D interactive movie
Immersive sim [95] Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii [96]
Isometric adventure Congo Bongo 1983 SEGA
Isometric platformer
Isometric shooter Zaxxon 1982 SEGA
Japanese RPG (JRPG) Dragon & Princess [88] 1982 Koei
Kart racing Power Drift 1988 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
3D kart racing
Light gun shooter Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)
Light gun shooter (on-screen) Duck Hunt [54] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Light gun shooter video game Shooting Gallery [67] 1972 Nintendo,
Magnavox
(Ralph Baer)
3D light gun shooter Galaxian³ 1990 Namco
Metroidvania Tutankham 1982 Konami
MOBA Herzog Zwei [83] 1989 Technosoft
Motorbike racing Fonz [97] 1976 SEGA
Open-world action RPG Panorama Toh [81] 1983 Nihon Falcom
(Yoshio Kiya)
Open-world driving Rally-X 1980 Namco
Open-world racing
Open-world space flight sim Gingahyōryū Vifam,[50]
Elite
1984 Bandai,
David Braben
Pinball video game Bomb Bee 1979 Namco
Platformer Space Panic 1980 Universal
2D platformer
Scrolling platformer Jump Bug 1981 Alpha Denshi
3D platformer Antarctic Adventure 1983 Konami
Point & click adventure Star Arthur Densetsu
[75]
1983 T&E Soft
Racing Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Driving
3D racing
Scrolling racer
Third-person racing
Racing (on-screen) Indy 500 [6][3] 1969 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Driving (on-screen)
3D racing (on-screen)
First-person racing
Racing video game Astro Race,[66]
Space Race
1973 Taito,
Atari
2D racing
Driving video game Speed Race,
Gran Trek 10
1974 Taito (Nishikado),
Atari
2D driving
Scrolling racer video game Speed Race 1974 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
3D racing video game Road Race,[7]
Fonz
1976 SEGA
Third-person racing video game
First-person racing video game Night Driver 1976 Atari
Racing simulation Pole Position,
TX-1
1982,
1983
Namco,
Tatsumi [98]
3D polygon racing Plazma Line 1984 Technosoft
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
3D polygon first-person racing
3D polygon first-person driving Winning Run 1988 Namco
3D polygon third-person racing Virtua Racing 1992 SEGA AM2
(Yu Suzuki)
Rail shooter Buck Rogers:
Planet of Zoom
1982 SEGA
3D rail shooter
3D polygon rail shooter Galaxian³ 1990 Namco
Real-time strategy (RTS) Western Gun,
Space Tactics [99]
1975,
1980
Taito (Nishikado),
SEGA
Real-time tactics (RTT)
Rhythm game Oh! Mouretsu [3] Early 1970s Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Rhythm video game Dance Aerobics 1987 Human Entertainment
Role-playing video game (RPG) Pedit5 1975 Rusty Rutherford
3D role-playing game Wibarm 1986 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Roguelike Rogue 1981 A.I. Design
Role-playing shooter (RPS) The Screamer [100] 1985 Magical Zoo [101]
3D role-playing shooter Wibarm 1986 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Run & gun shooter Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Sandbox Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Sandbox video game Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
Side-scrolling 2D platformer Jump Bug 1981 Alpha Denshi
Shoot 'em up (shmup) Space Invaders 1978 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
2D shoot 'em up
Fixed shooter
Shooter Spacewar! 1962 Steve Russell
2D shooter
3D shooter Periscope [40] 1965 Namco
(Masaya Nakamura)
Side-scrolling shooter
3D shooter (on-screen) Jet Rocket [43] 1970 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
Scrolling shooter Bomber [56][58] 1977 SEGA
Side-scrolling shooter
video game
Vertical scrolling shooter Galaxian,
Ozma Wars
1979 Namco,
SNK
3D shooter video game Radar Scope 1979 Nintendo
Simulation Computer Chess 1951 Dietrich Prinz
Space flight sim Astro Race [66] 1973 Taito
3D polygon space flight sim Star Cruiser 1988 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Sports Tennis For Two 1958 William Higinbotham
Stealth Manbiki Shounen [102] 1979 Hiroshi Suzuki [103]
Stealth action Lupin III [104] 1980 Taito
Stealth action-adventure 005 1981 SEGA
Strategy Computer Chess 1951 Dietrich Prinz
Strategy video game Computer Draughts 1952 Christopher Strachey
Strategy RPG (SRPG) Dragon & Princess [88] 1982 Koei
Survival horror Nostromo [105] 1981 Akira Takiguchi [106]
3D survival horror Terror House [107] 1982 Bandai
3D polygon survival horror
(partial)
Alone in the Dark 1992 Infogrames
(Frédérick Raynal)
3D polygon survival horror
(full)
Doctor Hauzer [108] 1994 Riverhill Software [109]
(Kenichiro Hayashi)[110]
Survival horror RPG The Screamer [100] 1985 Magical Zoo
Tactical RPG (TRPG) Dragon & Princess [88] 1982 Koei
Tactical shooter Western Gun 1975 Taito
(Tomohiro Nishikado)
3D tactical shooter Space Tactics [91] 1980 SEGA
Text adventure Colossal Cave
Adventure
1977 William Crowther
Third-person action Gun Fight [30] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
3D third-person action
Third-person action video game Radar Scope 1979 Nintendo
3D third-person action
video game
Third-person shooter (TPS) Gun Fight [30] 1969 SEGA
(Hisashi Suzuki)
3D third-person shooter (TPS)
Third-person shooter
video game
(TPS)
Radar Scope 1979 Nintendo
3D third-person shooter
video game
(TPS)
Third-person rail shooter Buck Rogers:
Planet of Zoom
1982 SEGA
3D polygon third-person shooter Wibarm 1986 Arsys Software
(Katsunori Yoshimura)
Tower defense Bokosuka Wars [111][112] 1983 Koji Sumii [113]
Turn-based strategy (TBS) Computer Chess 1951 Dietrich Prinz
Turn-based tactics (TBT)
Vehicle simulation Mini Drive [3] 1959 Kasco
(Kenzou Furukawa)
Vehicle combat Spacewar! 1962 Steve Russell
Driving combat Crashing Race [114][115] 1976 Taito
Visual novel Portopia Serial
Murder Case
[27]
1983 Yuji Horii
Wrestling Tag Team Wrestling 1983 Technōs Japan

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Empire of the Petal Throne, Wikipedia
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker, Wikipedia
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Kasco and the Electro-Mechanical Golden Age (Interview), Classic Videogame Station ODYSSEY, 2001
  4. Kasco, Giant Bomb
  5. Kenzou Furukawa, Giant Bomb
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Indy 500, Giant Bomb
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Road Race, Sega Retro
  8. brutaldeluxe.fr
  9. PROJECTS AND ARTICLES Retrieving Japanese Apple II programs.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Turbo, Sega Retro
  11. Steve Hanawa, Sega Retro
  12. Stereoscopic 3D, Giant Bomb
  13. Katsunori Yoshimura, Giant Bomb
  14. Flat Shading, Giant Bomb
  15. SimDrive, Giant Bomb
  16. Gouraud Shading, Giant Bomb
  17. Autostereoscopy, Giant Bomb
  18. Electronic Gaming Monthly, issue 93, April 1997, page 22
  19. Hisao Oguchi, Sega Retro
  20. Phong Shading, Giant Bomb
  21. Brave Firefighters, Giant Bomb
  22. List of patent family members for US Patent No. 5390937. espacenet. Retrieved on 17 November 2011
  23. The Bouncer, Giant Bomb
  24. Takashi Tokita, Giant Bomb
  25. Hisahiko Takeuchi, MobyGames
  26. Depth-of-field, Giant Bomb
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken, Giant Bomb
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 Balloon Gun, Sega Retro
  29. Balloon Gun at Museum of the Game
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Gun Fight, Sega Retro
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Playtron, Giant Bomb
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 Basketball, Giant Bomb
  33. 33.0 33.1 Flash Boy, Giant Bomb
  34. 34.0 34.1 John Szczepaniak, History of Japanese Video Games, Kinephanos, ISSN 1916-985X
  35. Shanghai Kid, Giant Bomb
  36. Jeff Dunn (December 15, 2012). Of Fists and Fatalities: The history of fighting games. Retrieved on 2015-01-27
  37. Yoshihisa Kishimoto, Giant Bomb
  38. TAD Corporation, Giant Bomb
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 39.6 Wild Gunman, Giant Bomb
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 Periscope, Sega Retro
  41. 41.0 41.1 Astron Belt, Sega Retro
  42. Jump, Giant Bomb
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 Jet Rocket, Sega Retro
  44. Sharp Corporation, Giant Bomb
  45. Steve Jobs, Giant Bomb
  46. Moral Decisions, Giant Bomb
  47. The LINKS (Network), MSX Resource Center
  48. T&E Soft, Giant Bomb
  49. Tokihiro Naito, Giant Bomb
  50. 50.0 50.1 Gingahyōryū Vifam, MobyGames
  51. Quick-time event, Giant Bomb
  52. Makoto Uchida, Giant Bomb
  53. Ray Casting, Giant Bomb
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 Duck Hunt, Sega Retro
  55. Vertical scrolling
  56. 56.0 56.1 Bomber, Sega Retro
  57. Bomber, Giant Bomb
  58. 58.0 58.1 Bomber at Museum of the Game
  59. Parallax Scrolling, Giant bomb
  60. 60.0 60.1 Sea Devil, Sega Retro
  61. 61.0 61.1 XE-1 AP, Sega Retro
  62. 62.0 62.1 Dempa, Sega Retro
  63. Nintendo Wins Emmy For DS And Wii Engineering | Technology | Sky News. News.sky.com (2008-01-09). Retrieved on 2010-08-30
  64. Magrino, Tom (2008-01-08). CES '08: Nintendo wins second Emmy - News at GameSpot. Gamespot.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-30
  65. Missile, Sega Retro
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Astro Race at Museum of the Game
  67. 68.0 68.1 68.2 Motion Control, Giant Bomb
  68. 69.0 69.1 69.2 KO Punch, Sega Retro
  69. Pressure Sensitivity, Giant Bomb
  70. Sega Activator, Giant Bomb
  71. Light Harp at CES 1993. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YoxsnCiX05k. Retrieved 2010-07-06. 
  72. Horowitz, Ken (2004-08-03). Top 10 Tuesday: Worst Game Controllers. Sega-16. Archived from the original on 2010-02-06 Retrieved on 2010-12-04
  73. Assaf Gurner, Giant Bomb
  74. 75.0 75.1 Star Arthur Densetsu I: Wakusei Mephius, Giant Bomb
  75. "Text Editing System Using On-Line Real-time Character Recognition", Information Processing in Japan, Volumes 11-14, Information Processing Society of Japan
  76. Sega Graphic Board, Sega Retro
  77. US4389711A patent: Touch sensitive tablet using force detection
  78. Masaya Nakamura, Giant Bomb
  79. Hisashi Suzuki, Sega Retro
  80. 81.0 81.1 Panorama Toh, Giant Bomb
  81. Yoshio Kiya, Giant Bomb
  82. 83.0 83.1 Herzog Zwei, Sega Retro
  83. Toshiba-EMI Ltd, Giant Bomb
  84. Haruhiko Shono, Giant Bomb
  85. The Life Stage: Virtual House, Giant Bomb
  86. Micro Cabin, Giant Bomb
  87. 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 The Dragon & Princess, Giant Bomb
  88. 89.0 89.1 Samurai, Giant Bomb
  89. Samurai at Museum of the Game
  90. 91.0 91.1 Space Tactics, Sega Retro
  91. Mystery House, Giant Bomb
  92. Roberta Williams, Giant Bomb
  93. Getsu Fuuma Den, Giant Bomb
  94. Immersive Sim, Giant Bomb
  95. Yuji Horii, Giant Bomb
  96. Fonz, Sega Retro
  97. Tatsumi, Giant Bomb
  98. Space Tactics, Sega Retro
  99. 100.0 100.1 The Screamer, Giant Bomb
  100. Magical Zoo, Giant Bomb
  101. Manbiki Shounen, Giant Bomb
  102. Hiroshi Suzuki, Giant Bomb
  103. Lupin III, Giant Bomb
  104. AX-2: Uchuu Yusousen Nostromo, Giant Bomb
  105. Akira Takiguchi, Giant Bomb
  106. Terror House, Giant Bomb
  107. Doctor Hauzer, Giant Bomb
  108. Riverhill Software, Giant Bomb
  109. Kenichiro Hayashi, Giant Bomb
  110. Bokosuka Wars, Giant Bomb
  111. Dru Hill: The Chronicle of Druaga, 1UP
  112. Koji Sumii, Giant Bomb
  113. Masser, Jeff (2012). A Brief History Of Kart Racing Games. Modojo.
  114. Crashing Race at Museum of the Game

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