While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkien's works and the many other high fantasy settings based upon his, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. From the early 1980s to the present, several video game series have been developed based upon Tolkien's writings, including titles by Electronic Arts, Sierra and Melbourne House.
In 1982, Melbourne House began a series of licensed LoTR graphical interactive fiction (text adventure) games with The Hobbit, based on the book with the same name. The game was considered quite advanced at the time, with interactive characters that moved between locations independent of the player, and Melbourne House's 'Inglish' text parser which accepted full-sentence commands where the norm was simple two-word verb/noun commands. They went on to release 1986's The Fellowship of the Ring, 1987's The Shadows of Mordor, and 1990's The Crack of Doom. A BBC Micro text adventure released around the same time was unrelated to Melbourne's titles except for the literary origin. In 1987, Melbourne House released War in Middle-earth, a real-time strategy game. Konami also released an action-strategy game titled Riders of Rohan.
Other early efforts:
Shadowfax by Postern (1982), a simplistic side-scrolling action game for the Spectrum, C64, and VIC-20, in which Gandalf rides the titular steed while smiting endless Nazgûl. Suspiciously similar in appearance to Activision's Stampede.
The Lord of Rings: Journey to Rivendell was announced in 1983 by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600, but was never released. The prototype ROM can be found at AtariAge.
In 1990, Interplay, in collaboration with Electronic Arts (who would later obtain the licenses to the film trilogy), released Lord of the Rings Vol. I (a special CD-ROM version of which featured cut-scenes from Ralph Bakshi's animated adaptation) and the following year's Lord of the Rings Vol. II: The Two Towers, a series of role-playing games based on the events of the first two books. A third installment was planned, but never released. Interplay's games mostly appeared on the PC and Amiga, but later they did a Lord of the Rings game for the SNES, which played nothing like their PC games and instead was more like The Legend of Zelda.
Film trilogy revival
Thereafter, no official The Lord of the Rings titles were released until the making of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy for New Line Cinema in 2001-2003, when mass-market awareness of the story appeared. Electronic Arts obtained the licenses for the three films, although they only produced games for The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Sierra Entertainment, having lost out on the film licenses, obtained the license to produce games based on the books (as opposed to the film trilogy) from Tolkien Enterprises instead, entitling them to use the story, but not material from the film.
This gave rise to an unusual situation. Electronic Arts produced no adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring, but Sierra did. However, they did produce adaptations of The Two Towers (which covered events of both the first two films) and The Return of the King, whereas Sierra did no such thing. This produced a "complete trilogy" of games (albeit unofficial). Sierra's entry to the series received average reviews, and Electronic Arts' entries received rave reviews, although Peter Jackson has criticized EA for leaving him out of the development process and has declared that he is unhappy with the quality of the titles.
While Sierra Entertainment's access to the book rights prevented them from using material from the film, it permitted them to include elements of The Lord of the Rings which were not in the films. EA, on the other hand, were not permitted to do this, as they were only licensed to develop games based on the films, which left out elements of the original story or deviated in places. Fans' opinions differ on the better of the two styles. Some prefer EA's action-oriented hack and slash-style games, which tend to pass on large segments of the story and place a reliance on film clips and the film's music, citing the almost cinematic quality that the game produces as similar to the film. Others preferred the Sierra adventure title, which, while featuring less action and epic battles than the EA title, covers the story in greater detail and offers a more cerebral challenge.
Sierra's consequent adaptation of The Hobbit also received average reviews. It is unknown which developer/publisher would assume the task of adapting a film version of The Hobbit to a video game, especially since Jackson chose to work with Michel Ancel and Ubisoft on King Kong in light of his displeasure with EA.
Eventually in 2005, EA was able to secure the rights to both the films and the books, thus the Battle for Middle Earth II incorporates elements of a Northern Campaign only alluded to in the books.
Post-film trilogy efforts
The popularity of real-time strategy (RTS) titles led Sierra and EA to independently produce two RTS games. Sierra produced The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring in 2003, based on the books. The title was well received by the press, but some criticized the derivative nature of the game. Some fans also took issue with the many liberties taken with the source material. A year later, EA released The Battle for Middle-earth, based on the films. The title was given rave reviews in the gaming media and sold well. However, as with War of the Ring, some fans took issue with the liberties taken with the books.
EA then released a console RPG in 2004 entitled The Third Age, based on the universe portrayed in the films, though not following the same story. It was based on an original story that runs parallel to the events of the movies. The game received average reviews, with many quoting the poor quality of the story in relation to its source. The game also contains a range of unrelated situations that divert from the original plot, such as the final melee combat versus the Eye of Sauron.
In July 2005, EA was granted the rights to develop games based on the books, alongside the separate agreement for games based on the New Line Cinema films. EA released The Battle for Middle-earth II on March 2, 2006. While it sold well, some fans, as ever, took issue with the liberties taken with the books, as with its predecessor. That November, EA released a PSP-exclusive title, The Lord of the Rings: Tactics. In October, 2006, an expansion pack for The Battle for Middle-earth II was released called "The Rise of the Witch-king" that focused on events before the books when the Witch-king ruled the Northern country of Angmar.
EA was working on another console RPG called The Lord of the Rings: The White Council. IGN expected The White Council to continue on from the side-story of The Third Age. It was canceled due to an overlap with the userbase for the MMO.Template:Syn[ ]
A MMORPG by Turbine, Inc., entitled The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar and endorsed by Tolkien Enterprises[ was officially launched April 24, 2007. This game only covered the region of ]Eriador, from the Grey Havens to the Misty Mountains, and about as far north and south. It does not make it far enough South as to reach Isengard but eventually, the whole of Middle Earth is expected to be opened through annual expansion packs.[ The game is based on the books and stays more loyal to the actual lore than any of the other games. ][ Although there are still a great many deviations from Tolkien's work (such as a new ring of power) it has revived major support from fans and positive reviews. They were unable to obtain the movie rights, though they tried. The first expansion to The Lord of the Rings Online was released on November 18, 2008, entitled "The Mines of Moria." The next expansion, "The Siege of Mirkwood" was released on December 1, 2009. ][ ]
The Lord of the Rings: Conquest produced by Pandemic Studios using the Game engine used in Star Wars: Battlefront was released in early 2009 on consoles, PC and Nintendo DS. The console and PC versions received average or scathing reviews, the DS version received average reviews. The game also marked the end of Electronic Arts license, which had already been extended some months so that the game could be completed. Subsequently the license, obtained via Tolkien Enterprises passed to Warner Bros.[ ]
Aside from officially licensed games, unofficial games have also been made. Some of the longest-lasting are Angband (1990), a roguelike based loosely on The Silmarillion, Elendor (1991), a MUSH based on Tolkien in general, and MUME (1992) and The Two Towers (1994), MUDs based on The Lord of the Rings.
Many Tolkien-inspired mods and custom maps have been made for many games, such as Warcraft III, Neverwinter Nights, Rome: Total War, Medieval 2: Total War, "Warlords 3", "Mount&Blade" and Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings
As well as maps in games, many lord of the Rings fans have made modifications for the popular The Elder Scrolls Series for the PC.
The roguelike NetHack also has many allusions to The Lord of the Rings, with references to creatures and sayings (i.e. 'Elbereth').
List of video games
- ↑ Thorsen, Tor (2005-10-26). Report: Peter Jackson displeased with Lord of the Rings games. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
- ↑ Paulsen, Jakob (June 3, 2003). War of the Ring impressions. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
- ↑ Adams, Dan (2004-12-03). The Lord of the Rings: Battle for Middle-earth. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
- ↑ Adams, David (2006-01-09). EA Crafting Second Lord of the Rings RPG?. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
- ↑ Metacritic results : "Lord of the Rings: Conquest" (links) metacritic.com