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Open-world video games are a type of video game where a player can roam freely through a virtual world and is given considerable freedom in choosing how or when to approach objectives.[1]

The term "free roam" is also used, as is "sandbox" and "free-roaming".[2][3] "Open world" and "free-roaming" suggest the absence of artificial barriers,[4] in contrast to the invisible walls and loading screens that are common in linear level designs. The term "sandbox" is often used incorrectly. Open world doesn't necessarily mean sandbox. A true "sandbox" is where the player has tools to modify the world themselves and create how they play.

The roots of open-world gaming can be traced back as early as Go (c. 300 BCE). The first open-world game was SEGA's Jet Rocket (1970). The first open-world video game was Taito's Western Gun (1975). The first scrolling open-world video game was Namco's Rally-X (1980). The first fully-scaled on-foot open-world games were Courageous Perseus and Hydlide in 1984. The most influential open-world game was The Legend of Zelda (1986). The first polygonal 3D open-world games were Arsys Software's Wibarm (1986) and Star Cruiser (1988). The most influential 3D open-world video game was Grand Theft Auto III (2001).

Definition

The term "open world" doesn't have a clear definition. But the most common usage of "open world" refers to a game that features free-roaming outdoor exploration across a large game world that is fully-scaled and continuous. The term "open world" is rarely used in reference to games where exploration is limited to indoor dungeons, or games with outdoor overworld maps that are not to scale.

Criteria

The definition of an open world generally includes most of the following criteria:

  • A free-roaming environment with limited restrictions on where the player can go, in contrast to more linear games with heavier restrictions on where the player can go.
  • An outdoor landscape, which accounts for the majority of the game's environment, in contrast to games where most of the environment is indoors, such as a building, dungeon or cave.
  • A large world, with an environment that at least has the size of a large city or island, in contrast to environments limited to a smaller locale such as a building, dungeon or small town.
  • A fully-scaled world, which is graphically represented with a fairly realistic scale relative to the player character or vehicle, and with a constant, uniform, continuous scale. This is in contrast to an overworld that is represented with a highly unrealistic scale, and often with differing scales for different environments.
  • On-foot traversal, where a world can be mostly traversed on foot, in contrast to worlds that are mostly traversed in vehicles.
  • A real-time world, where the world is in motion regardless of what the player does, such as a world rendered in real-time, enemies moving around independently of the player, or a persistent world with day-night cycles.
  • 3D graphics, with the world rendered as a real-time 3D environment (particularly a polygonal 3D environment) that the player can explore in a first/third-person perspective.

History

Go (c. 300 BCE) to Dungeons & Dragons (1974 CE)

In an abstract form, the first open-world board game was the ancient Chinese-Japanese strategy game Go (c. 300 BCE), where the board represented a large overworld. While the ancient Indian-Persian game Chess (c. 400 CE) was more tactical and smaller-scale, Go was more strategic and larger-scale, with the board representing a large overworld map that pieces explored while capturing territories.

In 19th-century Prussia, Chess and Go evolved into wargaming, which had more realistic overworld maps. Chainmail (1971) gave wargaming a fantasy setting, which provided the basis for role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons (1974) and Empire of the Petal Throne (1975), retaining the overworld maps of their wargaming predecessors. In turn, the overworld maps carried over to role-playing video games in the early 1980s, though these early overworld maps were not to scale, so would not fit the modern definition of an open world as understood today, but can be considered precursors to open-world gaming.

Jet Rocket (1970) to Hydlide (1984)

Jet Rocket

SEGA's Jet Rocket (1970), the first open-world game.

The first open-world game was Jet Rocket, a video projection arcade game released by SEGA in August 1970. It introduced free-roaming flight movement over an open-world 3D landscape, for the first time in an electronic game, with players flying around in a first-person perspective and shooting at various landmarks across the game world.[5][6] This makes it the first open-world electronic game. Jet Rocket inspired several clones,[7] including Bally's Target Zero and Williams' Flotilla, both released in December 1970.

Western Gun

Taito's Western Gun (1975), the first open-world video game.

The first open-world video game was Taito's Western Gun (1975), localized for North America as Gun Fight (1975). Western Gun had two cowboy gunslingers who could freely roam across an environment littered with cacti and mountains while attempting to shoot each other. The North American Gun Fight limited each player's movement to their own side of the screen, whereas the original Japanese Western Gun allowed players to freely roam across anywhere on the screen. Gun Fight also reduced the scale of the environment, with mountains no longer being present.

The first video game with an overworld was the University of Tokyo's Heiankyo Alien (1979). It was a maze chase game predating Pac-Man (1980), but with a major difference being that the maze represents an entire city, the ancient Japanese city of Heian-kyō, or what is today Kyoto. SEGA's stealth game 005 (1981) took this further, with the player walking around an overworld city and entering buildings.

Rallyx2

Namco's Rally-X (1980), the first scrolling open-world video game.

Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, was the first scrolling open-world video game, and the first open-world driving game, a distant ancestor to Grand Theft Auto. Rally-X featured a vehicle driving around a multi-scrolling game world, becoming the basis for Miami Vice (1986),[8] which in turn became the basis for Grand Theft Auto (1997).

While the roots of open-world strategy gaming can be traced back to the board game Go (c. 300 BCE), the first open-world strategy video game was Nobunaga's Ambition, released in 1983, featuring a large overworld map.[9] The same year, Portopia Serial Murder Case was the first open-world adventure game.[10][11][12]

A precursor to open-world gaming was the open dungeon exploration of early role-playing games. This dates back to tabletop RPGs such as Dungeons & Dragons and Empire of the Petal Throne, which adapted the outdoor exploration of earlier wargames such as Chainmail, which in turn is rooted in the outdoor overworld exploration of Go. Dungeon exploration can be seen in early computer role-playing games such as Temple of Apshai (1979) as well as RPG-influenced adventure games such as Adventure (1980), and in treasure-hunting arcade games such as Tutankham (1982) and The Tower of Druaga (1984). However, these do not constitute open worlds in the modern sense, which refers to large outdoor environments, which early computer role-playing games or adventure games did not have until Ultima (1981), which in turn got its overworld concept from tabletop RPGs such as Dungeons & Dragons and Empire of the Petal Throne. But in Ultima's case, the overworld was not to scale, as was the case in tabletop role-playing games, with the player character being a giant on the world map, which doesn't fit the modern definition of an open world either.

Early examples of free-roaming, non-linear, open worlds in video games, with generally gradually increasing open-endedness, include Bosconian (1981),[13] Time Pilot (1982),[14][15] Panorama Toh (1983),[16] Mugen no Shinzou (1984), Dragon Slayer (1984),[4] Ginga Hyoryu Vifam (1984),[17] Hydlide (1984), Tritorn (1984), and Elite (1984).[1][18][19][20]

Open-world arcade flight simulators such as SEGA's Jet Rocket (1970) and its clones Flotilla and Target Zero influenced the development of free-roaming flight simulator video games such as Flight Simulator (1980), which in turn influenced open-world space simulators such as Elite (1984), and which in turn influenced Grand Theft Auto (1997).

Hydlide (1984) to River City Ransom (1989)

Hydlide

Hydlide (1984), one of the first fully-scaled on-foot open-world games, along with Courageous Perseus (1984).

Released in Japan at around the same time in 1984, the action role-playing video games Hydlide and Courageous Perseus[21] were the first true open-world video games in the modern sense of the word. They were the first games to feature on-foot, outdoor exploration in a fully-scaled, continuous open world. They marked a significant departure from earlier attempts at exploration, which was either limited to open dungeon exploration but with no outdoor exploration (such as earlier role-playing games and adventure games), or outdoor exploration represented by an overworld that is not to scale. Modern open-world game design largely traces back its origins to Hydlide and Courageous Perseus, especially through their influence on The Legend of Zelda.

Zelda1

The Legend of Zelda (1986), the most influential open-world game.

Hydlide and Courageous Perseus, the first fully-scaled on-foot open-world games, influenced The Legend of Zelda (1986), which adapted a similar open-world design on a larger scale. The Legend of Zelda was the most influential open-world game, with most open-world games today tracing their roots to Zelda. With nonlinear gameplay, it set the foundations for later action-adventure games like Metroid and role-playing video games like Final Fantasy, while influencing most modern games in general.[22][23] For example, Zelda also went on to inspire the constant-scale continuous open world designs that later appeared in Times of Lore (1988), the Ultima series from Ultima VI (1990) onwards[9] (which in turn inspired The Elder Scrolls series), the Grand Theft Auto series (which its creators called "Zelda meets Goodfellas"),[24] and The Witcher series (its creators cited Zelda as inspiration behind its world design).

There were several early games that offered players the ability to explore an open world while driving a variety of ground vehicles. TX-1 (1983),[25] The Battle-Road (1984)[26] and Out Run (1986)[27] were non-linear driving games that allowed the player to drive through multiple different paths that lead to different possible routes and final destinations.[25][26][27] Turbo Esprit provided a 3D free-roaming city environment in 1986 and has been cited as a major influence on Grand Theft Auto.[28] River City Ransom (1989) was an early sandbox brawler reminiscent of Grand Theft Auto.[29] Another early open-world game reminiscent of GTA was Takeshi no Chōsenjō (Takeshi's Challenge), a 1986 Family Computer video game only released in Japan; it was an unusual game for its time, featuring free-roaming gameplay while, much like GTA, allowing players to randomly attack any people (and having to escape police if the player murders a person) or even punch random objects (including menus). Another precursor was Speed Rumbler (1986), which featured a combination of run & gun shooter with driving mechanics, resulting in a new action game hybrid that would inspire games like Grand Theft Auto decades later.[30]

The Metroidvania school of game design introduced side-scrolling open worlds. Early examples of open-world Metroidvania game design included Brain Breaker (1984/1985), Xanadu (1985), Metroid (1986) and Vampire Killer (1986). The Metroidvania school had a significant influence on open-world gaming.

Other early examples of open-world games released during 1985-1986 include Star Luster (1985),[31][32] Baraduke (1985),[33] Brain Breaker (1985),[34] Riglas: Tamashii no Kaiki (リグラス) (1985),[35] Romance of the Three Kingdoms (1985),[9] Metroid (1986), Dragon Quest (1986),[4] and The Legend of Zelda (1986).[36][4]

The first open-world 3D video games were Arsys Software's Wibarm in 1986 and Star Cruiser in 1988. They were both the first to use 3D polygon graphics to render their open-world environments.

Metal Max (1991) to Shenmue (1999)

Since 1991, the Metal Max series of post-apocalyptic role-playing games featured truly open-ended, non-linear gameplay. They lack a predetermined story path, but the player is instead given the choice of what missions to follow in whichever order while being able to visit any place in the game world at any time.[37][38][39] The ending can be determined by the player, who can alter the ending through their actions, can complete the game at almost any time, and continue playing the game even after the ending.[39] Some of the games give the player the freedom to complete the game almost immediately after starting it, particularly Metal Saga, which could be completed with a full ending scenario just minutes into the game, making it the shortest possible RPG.[40] Since Romancing SaGa in 1992, the SaGa series has also been known for its truly open-ended, non-linear gameplay, offering many choices and allowing players to complete quests in any order, with the decision of whether or not to participate in any particular quest affecting the outcome of the storyline. The game also allowed players to choose from eight different characters, each with their own stories that start in different places and offer different outcomes.[41] Romancing SaGa thus succeeded in providing a very different experience during each run through the game, something that even later sandbox RPGs such as Fable had promised but were unable to live up to.[42]

Metal Max (1991) was an open-world RPG,[43] where the player can pursue missions in any order, visit any place in the game world,[39][44] determine the ending through their actions, complete the game at almost any time, and continue playing the game after the ending.[39] Romancing Saga (1992) was an open-ended RPG by Square that offered many choices and allowed players to complete quests in any order, with the decision of whether or not to participate in any particular quest affecting the outcome of the storyline.[45]

Secret of Mana (1993) was a major leap forward for open-world gaming. Its open world was the largest at the time (millions of square miles), significantly larger than The Legend of Zelda games at the time, for example. Secret of Mana could've had an even larger open world if it released for the SNES CD add-on as originally planned, but had to be cut down to fit onto a SNES cartridge.

Grand Theft Auto III (2001) to Breath of the Wild (2017)

Some critics treat the release of Grand Theft Auto III in 2001 as a revolutionary event in the history of video games.[46] The game's creator Sam Houser, however, described Grand Theft Auto III as "Zelda meets Goodfellas".[47] Other critics also likened Grand Theft Auto III to The Legend of Zelda and Metroid,[4] as well as Shenmue,[48][49][50][51] and noted how GTA III had elements from earlier games. For example, open-ended missions based on operating a taxi cab in a sandbox environment were the basis for SEGA's Crazy Taxi (1999).[52]

The next major leap forward for open-world gaming is The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild (2017). It introduced an innovative sandbox approach to open-world design, where the player has full freedom to interact with the open-world environment, with intuition, an advanced physics engine, and a new chemistry engine.[53]

Evolution of open-world gaming

The following tables and diagrams show the evolution of open-world gaming.

Timeline of early milestones

Year Developer Game Milestone Genre
c. 300 BCE China Go Open-world board game,
board game with overworld
Strategy,
wargame
c. 400 CE Indian subcontinent Chess Free-roaming tactical wargame,
free-roaming battlefield
Strategy,
wargame
1970 SEGA Jet Rocket [6] Open-world electronic game,
3D open world,
first-person open world
Flight sim,
FPS
1974 Gary Gygax,
Muhammad Barker
Dungeons & Dragons,
Empire of the Petal Throne
Role-playing game with overworld Tabletop RPG
1975 Tomohiro Nishikado Western Gun Open-world video game,
free-roaming arcade video game
Multi-directional shooter
1976 Don Daglow Dungeon Free-roaming computer game CRPG
1977 William Crowther Colossal Cave Adventure Free-roaming computer game Text adventure
1979 University of Tokyo Heiankyo Alien Open-world computer game,
video game with overworld
Action,
puzzle,
maze
1980 Namco Rally-X Scrolling open-world video game,
open-world driving game
Maze,
racing
1980 Atari Adventure Multi-screen indoor castle exploration Action/Adventure
1980 SubLOGIC Flight Simulator Free-roaming flight simulator video game Flight sim
1981 SEGA 005 Open-world action game,
action game with overworld
Action/Adventure,
stealth
1981 Namco Bosconian Open-world shooter Shoot 'em up
1981 Origin Systems Ultima CRPG with overworld CRPG
1982 Yoshiki Okamoto Time Pilot Endless open world Shoot 'em up
1982 Konami Tutankham Scrolling dungeon exploration,
action game with dungeon exploration
Action/Adventure,
maze
1983 Yoshio Kiya [54] Panorama Toh [55] Open-world action RPG,
action RPG with overworld
Action RPG
1983 Yuji Horii [56] Portopia Serial Murder Case [57] Open-world adventure game,
open-world immersive simulation
Adventure game,
visual novel
1984 Namco The Tower of Druaga Action RPG with dungeon exploration Action RPG
1984 Cosmos Computer,
Tokihiro Naito [58]
Courageous Perseus,[21]
Hydlide
Fully-scaled on-foot open world Action RPG
1984 Hiroshi Ishikawa [59] Brain Breaker [60] Side-scrolling open world Metroidvania
1984 Bandai,
David Braben
Ginga Hyōryū Vifam,[61]
Elite
Open-world space simulators Space sim
1985 Novagen Software Mercenary Open world with wireframe graphics Action/Adventure
1986 Nintendo The Legend of Zelda Fully-scaled open-world action-adventure Action/Adventure
1986 Nintendo,
Konami
Metroid,
Vampire Killer
Side-scrolling open world Metroidvania
1986 Arsys Software Wibarm 3D open-world video game,
third-person open world
Role-playing shooter,
action RPG
1986 Taito,
Canvas
Takeshi's Challenge,
Miami Vice
Open-world crime game Action/Adventure
1988 Arsys Software Star Cruiser Fully 3D open-world video game,
open-world role-playing shooter
Role-playing shooter,
FPS
1997 DMA Design Grand Theft Auto Open-world crime game Action/Adventure
1999 SEGA AM2 Shenmue 3D open-world adventure game Action/Adventure

Roots of open-world gaming

The following diagram traces the roots and influences of various games involved in the history of open-world gaming.

Open world

Comparison of early titles

The following table shows a list of early games that meet several or more of the criteria listed in the Definition section above.

Criteria
  Games that meet 3 or less of the criteria are not open-world games
  Games that meet between 4 and 6 of the criteria are partially open-world games.
  Games that meet 7 or 8 of the criteria are fully open-world games.
Year Game Criteria
met
Electronic
game?
Free
roaming?
Outdoor
landscape?
Large
world?
Fully
scaled?
On
foot?
Real
time
?
3D
graphics
?
c. 300 BCE Go 4 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
c. 400 CE Chess 3 No Yes Yes No No Yes No No
1970 Jet Rocket 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
1971 Chainmail 4 No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
1974 Dungeons & Dragons 4 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1974 Empire of the Petal Throne 4 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1975 Western Gun 5 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
1976 Dungeon 3 Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
1977 Colossal Cave Adventure 3 Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
1979 Heiankyo Alien 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
1979 Temple of Apshai 4 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No
1980 Pac-Man 4 Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
1980 Rally-X 5 Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
1980 Adventure 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1980 Flight Simulator 5 Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
1981 005 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
1981 Bosconian 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1981 Ultima 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1982 Time Pilot 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1982 Tutankham 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1983 Nobunaga's Ambition 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1983 Panorama Toh 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
1983 Portopia Serial Murder Case 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
1983 Ant Attack 5 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
1983 Mountain King 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1983 The Hobbit 3 Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
1984 The Tower of Druaga 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1984 Courageous Perseus 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1984 Hydlide 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1984 Ginga Hyōryū Vifam 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1984 Brain Breaker 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1984 Atic Atac 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1984 Elite 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1984 The Lords of Midnight 4 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No
1984 Sabre Wulf 5 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
1984 The Seven Cities of Gold 4 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
1984 Valhalla 5 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
1984 Zombie Zombie 5 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
1985 Baraduke 5 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
1985 Romance of the Three Kingdoms 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1985 Riglas: Tamashii no Kaiki [62][63] 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1985 Star Luster 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1985 Alternate Reality: The City 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
1985 Back to Skool 4 Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No
1985 Mercenary 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
1986 The Legend of Zelda 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1986 Dragon Quest 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
1986 Metroid 6 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1986 Takeshi's Challenge 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1986 Vampire Killer 6 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1986 Wibarm 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1986 Miami Vice 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
1986 Starflight 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1986 Turbo Esprit 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
1987 Castlevania II: Simon's Quest 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1987 Megami Tensei 6 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1987 Metal Gear 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1987 Sid Meier's Pirates! 5 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
1988 Star Cruiser 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1993 Cosmology of Kyoto 6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
1996 Super Mario 64 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1997 Grand Theft Auto 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
1998 The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1999 Shenmue 8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

See also

References

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  2. Logan Booker (2008-07-14). Pandemic Working On New 'Open World / Sandbox' IP. Kotaku. Retrieved on 2008-07-25
  3. The complete history of open-world games (part 2). Computer and Video Games (May 25, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-07-25
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Harris, John (September 26, 2007). Game Design Essentials: 20 Open World Games. Gamasutra. Retrieved on 2008-07-25
  5. Carl Therrien, Inspecting Video Game Historiography Through Critical Lens: Etymology of the First-Person Shooter Genre, Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, Volume 15, issue 2, December 2015, ISSN 1604-7982
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jet Rocket at SEGARetro
  7. https://archive.org/stream/NextGeneration24Dec1996/Next_Generation_24_Dec_1996#page/n10/mode/1up
  8. Miami Vice (1986) OCEAN, El Mundo del Spectrum
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Brooks, Evan (September 1988). "The Politics of War". Computer Gaming World (51): 12–13, 34, 48–49. "Both games come from Japan (Koei Corporation) and deal with the unification of countries during a feudal era and both games offer the sophisticated strategy player an opportunity to balance economic, diplomatic, and military decisions during a formative period of a foreign nation." 
  10. "Megal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain". Official Xbox Magazine. Christmas 2015. https://archive.org/stream/Xbox_The_Official_Magazine_Xmas_2015#page/n107/mode/2up. 
  11. Peter Tieryas (April 5, 2015), "THE MURDER MYSTERY FROM THE CREATOR OF DRAGON QUEST", Entropy, https://entropymag.org/the-murder-mystery-from-the-creator-of-dragon-quest/ 
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  13. Open-world video games at Allgame via the Wayback Machine
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  15. Konami Arcade Classics: Well, at least it's classic. IGN (January 7, 2000). Retrieved on 2011-04-08
  16. Dark Age of JRPGs (7): Panorama Toh ぱのらま島 - PC-88 (1983), Hardcore Gaming 101
  17. Gingahyōryū Vifam at MobyGames
  18. Barton, Matt; Bill Loguidice (April 7, 2009). The History of Elite: Space, the Endless Frontier. Gamasutra. Retrieved on 2009-12-27
  19. Whitehead, Dan (February 4, 2008). Born Free: the History of the Openworld Game. Eurogamer. Retrieved on 2008-07-25
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  21. 21.0 21.1 Courageous Perseus at Giant Bomb
  22. Peckham, Matt (2012-11-15). ALL-TIME 100 Video Games. TIME. Retrieved on 2014-08-12
  23. Mc Shea, Tom (20121-21-12). The Legend of Zelda 25th Anniversary A Look Back. GameSpot. Retrieved on 2014-08-12
  24. http://ign.com/articles/2001/09/10/rockstars-sam-houser-mouths-off
  25. 25.0 25.1 TX-1 at Museum of the Game
  26. 26.0 26.1 The Battle-Road at Museum of the Game
  27. 27.0 27.1 Brian Gazza. Outrun. Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved on 2011-03-17
  28. Retrorevival: Turbo Esprit, Retro Gamer issue 20, page 48. Imagine Publishing, 2006.
  29. Parish, Jeremy (2008-04-29). Retronauts Carjacks Grand Theft Auto. 1UP.com. Retrieved on 23 January 2012
  30. Speed Rumbler, CGR Undertow, YouTube
  31. Star Luster. Virtual Console. Nintendo. Retrieved on 2011-05-08 (Translation)
  32. Szczepaniak, John (2015). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers. 2. pp. 506 & 982. "technically impressive real-time first-person 3D space shoot-em-up (imagine Elite but without vector graphics); with intense combat and a large free-roaming map containing enemy bases and refuelling stations, players need to plan their attacks strategically." 
  33. Szczepaniak, John (2015). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers. 2. p. 498. "Baraduke has a lot of iconic sci-fi elements, including from the Alien films. It's also a rather fun and intense free-roaming 2D shmup" 
  34. John Szczepaniak. Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier. Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved on 2011-03-16 Reprinted from "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier", Retro Gamer (67), 2009 
  35. Szczepaniak, John (2014). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers. 1. SMG Szczepaniak. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9929260-3-8. "Riglas: Tamashii no Kaiki – large free roaming RPG exclusive to Japanese computers, worth checking out" 
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  46. Game Informer Issue 138 p.73
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  55. Panorama Toh at Giant Bomb
  56. Yuji Horii at Giant Bomb
  57. Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken at Giant Bomb
  58. Tokihiro Naito at Giant Bomb
  59. Hiroshi Ishikawa at Giant Bomb
  60. Brain Breaker at Giant Bomb
  61. inga Hyōryū Vifam at Giant Bomb
  62. Szczepaniak, John (2014). The Untold History of Japanese Game Developers. 1. SMG Szczepaniak. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9929260-3-8. "Riglas: Tamashii no Kaiki – large free roaming RPG exclusive to Japanese computers, worth checking out" 
  63. リグラス -魂の回帰-for PC-8801 (1985), YouTube

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