One of Samus Aran's trademark attacks. The Screw Attack upgrade is the apex in a series of jump upgrades and is found in every Metroid game except for Metroid Prime. The Screw Attack icon often serves as the logo for the Metroid series as a whole. It allows her to spin when she jumps to damage enemies. There are many less-awesome upgrades that usually come before the Screw Attack, but they're all vaguely related to Samus jumping, so they all go in this section.
High Jump Boots
Allow Samus to jump 1.5 times as high. Found in all Metroid games. From Metroid Fusion on, getting High Jump also lets you jump while in Morph Ball mode.
Allows Samus to jump repeatedly without landing, as long as she's spinning, in the non-Prime games. In the Prime games, allows for a double jump. Found in all Metroid games. But since it's normally found after getting the High Jump Boots, you're doubling jumps that are 1.5 times as high, so you're basically jumping three times as high as before.
Turns Samus's double jump into a Sonicesque spinning attack. This is found in all Metroid games except for Metroid Prime. In Metroid Prime 2: Echoes it also let her double jump up to five times (read: fly) and attach to certain kinds of wall surfaces, allowing her to perform wall jumps.