There are 4 character classes in the game, The Guild 2. They consist of: Patron, Craftsman, Scholar and Rogue. See Below regarding details.
Patron- This class is the "godfather of the public" in a sense. Owning pubs and bakeries they produce the common man's everyday needs and wants. From supplying the working class with beer and bread to making the finest cakes and pastries for the noblemen and women there income is substantiated by others. A useful strategy for using these is to buy a fishery and produce fried herring (e.g. in the town of Berring on the map The Hansa there is a fishery right next door to the harbor) or buy an orchard or farm and work your way from supply production to output production ( e.g. buy a farm, work producing wheat and barley for a few years then build a bakery).
Craftsmen- These men (and women on occasion) build the wood and iron works and statues we all love to gaze upon. From the wood shaving covered carpenters house to the blazing hot smelter in the smithy they work with there hands producing "finished goods" for the public. Although some might argue that this class starts off easier in earning income (owning a mine for example) they tend to run short on supplies quickly. A good strategy might be to build a mine next to the precious stone and gold ore deposits (even if there is already a mine there no worries a little competition never hurt anything) and mine it for 2-3 yrs only selling your stores when they reach around 40-60 less you "cludder the market" causing the prices to drop.
Scholar- Smart and quick witted are minor descriptions of these highly educated men and women. From owning a bank that powerhouse and bolsters the economy to caring for the sick and wounded in the infirmary to even owning a protestant or catholic church this class is perfect for those looking to control their society. While they are apart of the small 15% of the population that could read and write at the time, they tend to, like the craftsmen, run into supply shortage. A good strategy would be to build a church then marry a patron and build an inn. That way while the good and upright religous citizens of your town go to hear you preach the "less caring more drinking" crowd goes to your spouses venture thus leaving your coffers overflowing.
Rogue- these shady characters rule the underbelly side of civilization. From the gambling table at the thieves den to the barracks at a mercenary camp they deal in death and destruction.Having a rogue in your family definetly has its perks. Although you can hire every day "street murderers" to do your bidings why not raise a talented and determined assassin in your family thus causing your competitors and fellow dynasties to constantly watch their backs. A good strategy is to own a mercenary camp and toll every thing that walks on the road to your town a "toll".